hamlet

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Hamlet


Hamlet dares us, along with Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, to pluck out


the heart of my mystery. This mystery marks the essence of Hamlets


character as, in spite of our popular psychologies, it ultimately


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does for all human personalities. Granting this, we can attempt to


chart its origin and outward manifestations. Ophelia tells us that


before the events of the play Hamlet was a model courtier, soldier and


scholar, The glass of fashion and the mould of form, / Th observed of


all observers. With the death of his father and the hasty, incestuous


remarriage of his mother to his uncle, however, Hamlet is thrown into


a suicidal frame of mind in which the uses of this world seem to him


weary, stale, flat, and unprofitable. Though his faith in the value


of life has been destroyed by this double confrontation with death and


human infidelity, he feels impotent to effect any change in this new


reality It is not, nor it cannot come to good. / But break my heart,


for I must hold my tongue. All he can do in this frustrated state is


to lash out with bitter satire at the evils he sees and then relapse


into suicidal melancholy. It is in this state that he meets the equally


mysterious figure of his fathers ghost with its supernatural revelations


of murder and adultery and its injunction upon Hamlet to revenge his


fathers murder. While this command gives purpose and direction to Hamlets


hitherto frustrated impulse towards scourging reform, it also serves to


further unsettle his already disturbed reason. Whether or not the ghost


was actually a devil, its effect upon Hamlet has been diabolic. In the


two months after his meeting with the ghost, he puzzles the court with


his assumed madness but does nothing concrete to effect or further his


revenge. His inability to either accept the goodness of life or act


to destroy its evils now begins to trouble him as much as his outward


hysteria and depression does the court. He first condemns his apparent


lack of concentration on his revenge as the sign of a base, cowardly


nature. The advent of a company of players, however, gives him an idea


for testing the truth of the ghost and the guilt of Claudius. He plans


to have the players perform a play which reproduces Claudius crime and


observe Claudius reaction to it, thereby dispelling his own doubts as to


the proper course of his action. Having momentarily silenced his shame


at his inaction, however, he immediately relapses into his former state





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Educating Rita

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A play is a form of literature that is meant to be performed by actors, whether on stage, in the television studio, or on the film set. Educating Rita, written by Willy Russell, deals with his two-handed play, a wry, witty, look at social class and socialization in the north of England. The play is set in the time that it was written, in 185. The general idea that the writers intended to achieve through writing the play is to give a good background and understanding of the play, and to provide a solid platform and ideas for further study.


I think that Russell¡¦s real strength in characters department is subtle, and idiosyncratic characterization. Russell gives his characters a depth through imbuing them with quirky half hidden characteristic. Russell¡¦s characterization of Rita and Frank is convincingly realistic ¡V the two characters remain complex and multifaceted, they are not always transparent, nor predictable. Rita is loud and brash, yet also sensitive. Frank is jaded and cynical, but at times sincere and sentimental. Both characters display maturity and childishness. In terms of character development, Rita is a dynamic character who changes in the course of the play, while on the other hand; Frank is a static character who remains fairly unchanged.


For example, in scene , the character of Rita and Frank are totally contrast, there are angry, blur, shock, happy and boring,


Frank ¡KIt¡¦s your essay. Is it a joke? Is it? „² Shows angry and shock.


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Rita ¡KNo, it¡¦s not a joke. „² Blur


Q Act 1 Scene


Russell¡¦s try to make things complicated when he adds up minor character in the play, which is Denny, Rita¡¦s husband, and Julia, his x-student. The play is also a fable; the characters represent their respective ness classes in their mindsets ¡V dependent on, yet in opposition to each other. In this sense, Russell¡¦s retells the story that is as old as the modern age.


One of the main themes in the play is on personal relationship. Frank falls in love with people without realizing.


¡§¡Kof their feelings, thoughts, or what others think about them¡K.¡¨


Q Act 1 Scene


The play focuses on the way that Rita and Frank influence each other.


For the script writing, Frank and Rita¡¦s dialogue is realistic, not only in their accents, but also in tone, and in terms on content. Their conversations mimic reality meandering, rather than moving methodically. The unity of place also contributes to the naturalist feel.


In language and style, Rita speaks colloquially, and has a working accent though for a short while in Act Scene , she attempts to change it and talk properly.





Frank ¡KWhat¡¦s wrong with your voice?


Rita ¡KNothing is wrong with it, Frank. I have merely decided to talk properly¡K.


Q Act Scene


Frank in contrast, speaks in Standard English. Rita crudeness and crass language are also signs of ¡¥uncultured¡¦ working class socialization.


The costumes that can be uses are in early 80¡¦s. It is the Victorian styles, flowery and colourful dress, coats, etc. For the make up, it can be used a light blusher on Rita¡¦s face, and dark colour of lipsticks. Rita has a blond and short hair. For Frank, it just a little bit touches up on his face, and he can wear a coat suit, with the long sleeves shirt, and a necktie. Frank has a short brown hair and a pair of sad eyes. So, the eyes part should be make up assumes like a pair of sad eyes.


The lighting that can be used is spotlights, shadows colour and fade in and out lighting. It can make the play looks more lively and interesting. The props that can be used are; the bookshelves, the place where Frank keeps all his book and hide his wine, a telephone on his desk, windows, in his office, desk and swivel chair, nude religious picture, plant and flowers, and a hook. The backdrop that can be used is the improper office scenery. The movement of the play is depends on the mood of the character and mostly it is slow and steady. The sound effects and sentimental music also can be included.


In this play, it does shows foreshadowing, which is the hints that there will be a tragedy. When the husband saw him taking the pills, he had given her a warning. From here, we knew that something bad is going to happen if she denies.


¡§I got home, he packed me case. He said either I stop comin¡¦ here an¡¦ come off the pill or I could get out altogether.


Q Act 1 Scene 8


For the elements of drama, while there are elements of romantic comedy, there is no romance as the romantic potential of their relationship fizzles out. One gets the sense that Russell is playing with us, leading us to believe that something will develop between them, but their friendship actually deteriorates as Rita becomes more confident and Frank becomes jealous of this.


Traditionally, comedies do not end in death but Russell successfully blends both comedy and tragedy. Which is in the end, Julia finally giving him the boot when Frank is dispatched to Australia and finally Rita changes to be an educated and extravert woman.


ed. rita text book


collins cobuild dictionary


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Comparison between HRM and Personnel Management

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The term human resource management has come into popular usage in recent years. It is widely accepted in the workplace, and sums up the current state of play with regard to the management of people with the current emphasis on links to business strategy and on the fact that human resources are as important as any other resource and need to be managed carefully. One of the main underlying themes in the philosophy of HRM is that human resource needs must be taken into account in getting everyone to meet organisational objectives, and that this will be to the advantage of everyone concerned. Hence people are important whether they are full- or part- time employees, permanent or temporary, or contract workers who are actually employed by another company. Increasingly, all the people who contribute in some way to the work of the organisation will expect and demand some influence, and personnel management techniques in appraisal, training and job evaluation can be applied only with the consent and support of employees.


Many of the traditional aspects of people management are now increasingly devolved to line managers, so that in many modern organisations the human resource department exists to initiate such involvement and discussion of human resource issues and to define policies and strategies so that everyone can contribute to the organisations overall effectiveness.


Human resource management versus personnel management


You will have noticed that so far we have referred to both human resource management and personnel management. Many books and articles have been written about the differences and similarities between these terms, and many erudite arguments have been made. We do not intend to discuss these in detail, but at this stage we need to clarify our use of the two terms and our views on the extent of the similarities and differences.


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We have shown that both terms can be applied to a wide range of activities. Any difference must therefore be in the approach adopted, rather than in the actual activities that are undertaken. We have identified the following trends in the way the terms are used


¨ the personnel approach tends to be tactical in its approach to activities; the focus of human resource management approach is more strategic


¨ the personnel approach tends to be short-term and responsive to others demands; the HRM approach is to think of the long term and initiate policies on major new initiatives


¨ the personnel approach tends to be a rather piecemeal way of tackling issues; the HRM approach to the same issues is to place them within a clearly defined, integrated framework which has been worked out to benefit the organisation and to which the HRM manager and other staff have contributed


¨ personnel management tends to rely on traditional forms of communication; HRM tends to use a variety of communication channels


¨ personnel management tends to operate in organisations where there are traditional ways of working and where there is not much involvement of the workforce in decision making; human resource management emphasises the importance of the involvement of everyone in teams or in quality circles





¨ personnel management tends to work in traditionally unionised organisations; human resource management tends to encourage single status agreements and de-emphasises the role of trade unions


¨ personnel management tends to use traditional pay systems; human resource management emphasises the need to manage performance and motivate people by the use of various payment systems which are integrated with the organisations objectives


¨ the personnel management approach tends to reflect the status quo and resist change; human resource management tends to encourage change and increased flexibility in ways of working


¨ the personnel management approach tends to operate from a pluralistic point of view where different points of view are tolerated; the human resource management approach tends to operate from a unitary perspective emphasising the need for everyone in the organisation to work towards a common goal, so unions are not encouraged since they are not seen to be necessary


¨ personnel managements focus is therefore on getting the same conditions for groups; human resource managers focus on individual contracts, payment and reward systems


¨ personnel managers may sometimes need to help individuals with their problems; human resource managers feel individuals should be prepared to take responsibility for their own decisions and actions


¨ personnel management is concerned with the needs of the workforce and with ensuring a supply of employees who are happy and work well; human resource management is concerned with the demand for labour from management and has more emphasis on planning, monitoring and control to ensure the right number of people (not necessarily employees), with the right skills in the right place at the right time


¨ personnel managers want a system that is fair for all and are keen to have rules and procedures to encourage this; human resource managers tend to say that people have a right to proper treatment at work and efficient management will achieve this


¨ personnel management is a special activity because of the difficulties of working with people; human resource management says that managing people is much the same as managing any other resource


¨ personnel management tends to specialise in most of the activities mentioned earlier; human resource management tends to devolve many of these activities to line managers, concentrating instead on developing policies, planning, monitoring and evaluating.


There is obviously much to admire in the human resource management approach to the management of people, especially the emphasis on strategy, the links with values and mission, teamwork and the integration of all the activities into a framework which integrates these. However, some who call themselves personnel managers have also stressed the importance of acting strategically. One of the elements that is often pointed out as making the difference is the level of involvement of the function in the strategic decision-making of a company. One way of testing this is to ask whether the head of the function carries the title of Director and whether he or she attends board level meetings.


Even if this is taken as an essential difference between HRM and personnel management, it is clear that only a limited number of managers can actually be operating at the strategic level. Most practitioners must be operating at lower levels, contributing their ideas to the formulation of strategy, but in the main implementing the decisions made at the strategic level. These include Director, Manager, Officer, Administrator. Most directors and many managers, whether they call themselves personnel or human resource mangers, will be able to operate at a strategic level, but most officers or administrators, and line managers performing personnel functions, are unlikely to do so.


In other words, although involvement at the strategic level may be a key distinction between personnel management and HRM, it is still important to examine the functions as they are performed by managers throughout the organisation. We have proceeded from the premise that managers involved in HRM and personnel perform similar functions, such as those listed earlier. The difference between personnel and HRM lies in the overall philosophy that guides them in deciding how to handle these functions.


Levels of involvement in the HRM


Activity 1.


Consider the following thumbnail sketches of two peoples jobs. Which job do you feel reflects the human resource management approach, and which reflects the personnel management approach?


Case 1


Susan works in a knitwear manufacturing company and much of her time is taken up in recruitment, training and development. She has an assistant who helps in these areas and who does much of the actual interviewing along with the line managers for the appropriate sections. Susan is also involved in disciplinary situations. The line manager in the section issues the first warning, but later disciplinary action is handled by Susan in the presence of the line manager and, of course, the shop steward. Susan spends time negotiating with the trade union on a range of issues, but also likes to find time to go around the factory each day to get to know the staff and their problems. She gathers information about absenteeism from the mangers on her daily rounds, and this gives both them and their staff a chance to approach her with any problems. Both she and her assistant often spend time helping individuals who come to see them with problems.


Case


Paul works in a building society and has a small department of staff who work with him. The building society is concerned to provide the best possible service for its customers, and this is stated in its mission statement. Pauls boss is a Director and is concerned with strategic issues of employing people. Paul has clear objectives which he and his department work towards, and one of these is to reduce the levels of absenteeism by 5% in the next six months. They are also involved in new ways of getting employees to work more efficiently and effectively, and Paul spends a great deal of his time reviewing policies and procedures and getting his staff to work with members of the workforce in the design of these. He is particularly interested in providing more effective ways of communicating with the workforce, and at present his department communicates with employees through weekly newsletters and the internal e-mail system on computers. Paul tends to rarely leave his office and most of his contacts are with other mangers in other specialisms. His personal computer provides information about daily absenteeism levels, levels of labour turnover and other staff statistics. His department will provide advice to line mangers and will coordinate recruitment campaigns and advertising, but in general the line mangers are encouraged to take responsibility for their own team from recruitment through to dismissal. There is no recognised trade union, but team working is strongly encouraged.


Discussion of Activity 1.


These two thumbnail sketches provide rather stereotyped views, with Susan operating in a manner more typical of the personnel management approach and Paul in a way more typical of human resource management, but this may not be reflected in their job titles.


You will note that in suggesting how one might try to judge whether a given company is pursuing an HRM approach or a personnel management approach, we talked about involvement in strategic decision-making we did suggest asking whether HRM or personnel management is used in the relevant job titles. There does not seem to be any proven relationship between the chosen nomenclature within companies and their approach to the management of people. In Activity 1., we said both Susan and Paul may have the title of either Human Resource Manager or Personnel Manager. Even the Institute of Personnel and Development can be cited as an example of the lack of clarity that exists in the use of these terms. The IPD uses the words personnel and personnel management in its name and in the name of its monthly journal (People Management the Magazine for Professionals in Personnel Training and Development), and has distanced itself to some extent from the debate and from the term human resource management, which had been incorporated into the name of one of its journals prior to 15 (Personnel Management the Journal for Human Resource Managers).


Pause for Thought 1.


Which approach - human resource management or personnel management - do you personally feel more at ease with?


Often the distinctions are not at all clearcut titles, as we have seen, do not necessarily provide clues, and in many organisations elements of the HRM approach and the personnel approach will co-exist side by side.





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Brave New WorldIndependent Novel Study

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Brave New World


Independent Novel Study


- Lenina is the character whose actions I don’t agree with. Just like the Savage said, she’s a whore. They said that there wasn’t a guy in the entire building where she worked that hadn’t gone to bed with her yet. All she needs to hear is that a guy likes her and off go the clothes. I understand that it’s a normal thing for that civilization but she still does it more than most of the other women.


She acts this way because the world controllers brainwash everyone as a child to turn out the way they want. All people are sexually active as soon as they are physically capable.


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I don’t agree with this because how will you ever be able to fall in love with someone when you’re jumping from person to person?


4- The setting in Brave New World is very important. It takes place in the future (A.F. 6). All of earth is dominated by a one-world government. The people in Brave New World are genetically divided into five categories. The best and brightest individuals are Alphas while the Epsilons are the manual labourers with little need for intelligence. The other castes fill jobs somewhere in between. All of the main characters in Brave New World are Alphas. All people are conditioned as babies, to grow up as perfect humans. There is no such thing as jealousy or hate. Since everyone is a test tube baby, there aren’t any mothers or fathers. People who live in civilization are capable of being with as many people of the opposite gender since there is no such thing as girlfriends and boyfriends. When Lenina, an Alpha, goes on a trip to the reservation with Bernard, she is stunned to see old people, since everyone maintains their looks in civilization, until the day they die.


The Savages mother Linda had a difficult time getting used to the life in the reservation. She slept with every man she met, without understanding why it wasn’t allowed there. All of the men’s wives whipped her as her punishment.


I don’t think that I would be able to adapt to the setting in Brave New World. Except for maybe the reservation, since that resembles our present society a lot more than civilization described in Brave New World.


7- A character that goes through some changes in the novel is Bernard Marx.


He is a smaller than average Alpha plus who feels isolated from the rest of society. When he brings back Linda and the Savage, everyone loves him and he’s on top of the world. The Savage then stands him up for a party put on by Bernard and everyone hates him and makes fun of him again. He also changes his mind about his best friend Helmholz. They were best friends until The Savage came along. Helmholts became very good friends with Savage, meanwhile Bernard became jealous because they were spending more time together than with him.


In the past two years my marks in school have gone way down, and way back up again. This is a good thing as long as I can keep them above 80% I’m happy. That way it’ll be easier to find a good post-secondary school.


8- The ending for Brave New World was very emotional. The Savage chooses to live as a hermit, alone in a deserted area where only an old lighthouse remains. It’s this


location where the Savage plans to purify himself and to escape further contamination


by the filth of civilized life. He does this by carrying out a traditional Reservation


religious ceremony in which he calls on God for forgiveness for his lust for Lenina and


lack of concern for Linda’s troubled death. Soon the Savage begins to beat himself with


a whip, punishing himself for the world’s crime.


At first, he is undisturbed and left to live in peace, but soon inquisitive visitors find him, wondering he’s doing. Soon noisy reporters camp out on the land.


Eventually the Savage becomes so disgusted with the whole situation he retreats


to the lighthouse, hoping to find solitude. When eager reporters follow him inside, they find his corpse hanging on the stairway.


The overall meaning of the work is that in centuries to come, a one-world government will rise to power, stripping people’s freedom. The society in Brave New World not only lives in this totalitarian government, but embraces it like mindless robots.





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aborsion

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Abortion’s Children


Why it should be legalized.


“Abortion’s children” by Peggy Noonan, is an article in which the author uses extreme cases of young adults who immorally disposed of their newborn babies, in order to support his views on the unethical act of abortion. Through mentioning that those kids were shocked at society’s disapproval of their actions, the author tries to project how supporting and legalizing abortion morally corrupts the upcoming generations. Although the author makes abortion seem like murder, I believe that it is legitimate.


The reason for my belief is simply because those responsible for having the babies may not yet be ready for such an immense dedication. As a matter of fact, at such an early period of their lives, those kids would be unfair in their support towards their babies; hence giving their babies no choice but to grow up in an unhealthy environment that may very well scar them for life.


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A more crucial case in which abortion should be, in fact, encouraged is when rape occurs. Why is it an innocent girl’s fault that some twisted individual impregnated her? Why should she be the one to carry the burden of the consequence on her frail shoulders?


In summing this up, I would like to point out that the cases brought to the reader’s attention by the author are extreme and very rare to occur. 1.5 million abortions are performed in the United States yearly, and most of them occur in proper conditions. Why should abortion be legalized? The answer is quite simple, babies that are not yet brought into the world are not being deprived from anything since they haven’t experienced anything.





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Catcher in the Rye

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The Catcher in the Rye by J.D. Salinger is an interesting story about a guy who has deppression. His brother Allie died and he has a brother who is in Hollywood. His name is D.B. His little sister still lives with his parents and her name is Phoebe. After allie dies he blames himself and starts getting depressed. ...Holden Caulfield perceive him to be a youth at heart, but also a consistent and chronic liar. Holden appears to be youthful and childish to people that are meeting Holden for the first time. However with his youthful appearance, he makes a habit of being a chronic liar. One example of his chronic lying is his encounter with the prostitute, Sunny. When he meets her, he immediately lies to her by telling her that he is Jim Steele and is twenty-two years old “Allow me to introduce myself. My name is......


The Catcher in the Rye, by J.D. Salinger, portrays Holden Cawfield a New York City teenager in the 150`s as a manic-depressive. Holden`s depression starts with the death of his brother, Allie . Holden is expelled from numerous schools due to his poor academics which are brought on by his depression. Manic depression, compulsive lying, and immaturity throughout the novel characterize Holden. Events in Holden`s life lead him to become depressed. Holden`s depression centers on Allie. The manner that Holden sees......


...this and gone out to get him. Another thing, which I believe should be counted as a problem, is that he wrote a little message at the bottom of his exam to the teacher saying that he found his lectures interesting but didn’t take much of it in. Something else that Holden did a lot of was lying which I believe is a problem. He lied to another student’s Mum on a train about many things including what her son was like, why he was on the train and even his name. In another part of the book he......




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Discuss the socially constructed ideas that underpin the play and how they are revealed through the conflicts depicted.

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The playwright William Shakespeare wrote the play Much Ado About Nothing, and through his writing, shows dominant ideologies that were present at the time. Shakespeare allowed audiences new ways of understanding the human mind and behaviour. This play is a light-hearted comedy that travels through the lives of lonely people in Elizabethan England that find love through the seeds of deception. The life of each character is not fixed as they learn more about themselves or each other as events take place. Shakespeare added incidents and conflicts which further highlight the dominant beliefs and ideologies of Elizabethan era. The dominant ideologies include the expectations of men and women, which is associated with gender, the socially constructed ideas to do with class, and ideas about dominant institutions which deal with the foundations of the church and marriage.


The roles for different sexes is a major ideology in the play. Sex is referred to biological differences while gender is referred to social and cultural differences that are caused by sexual difference. The gender issue affects the way all of the character behaves. During the time, everything was male-orientated which means that men are dominant in all aspects of the walk of life. The traditional male sphere consists of war, honor, triumph, chivalry, and heroism. This explains for their individualistic aspirations, assertiveness, and narrow rationality. Women were considered a possession of men. Women were stereotyped into groups by Elizabethan men. This was to control and justify the place and role of women in society. Women were either a wife-which puts them as a possession of men, or a whore-which was soon to be bought. It was not surprising to see women blamed for the faults of the world as they were a favorite targets for satirists. This shows that any woman who spoke up, or showed a little more power over the men were branded ‘a shrew that needed taming.’ Nonetheless, women were also portrayed as goddesses as a courtly lover places them on a pedestal to be worshipped. This idolatry submerges the woman as an individual, and as a human being. In summary, women in a patriarchal world had very little say in all aspects of everyday life.


This ideology of women’s role in Elizabethan society was very much reflected all through this text. In this play, major conflicts occur between the female characters with the male characters, and society in general. The on-going dilemma with Beatrice and the men of society is caused by this difference in female ideology and the dominant ideology of that time. Beatrice was a modern women in a male-coordinated world. She is independent and refuses to be boxed into the inferior role. “A dear happiness to women, they would else have been troubled with a pernicious suitor. I thank God and my cold blood I am of your humour for that I had rather hear my dog bark at a crow than a man swear he loves me.” (I.i 5-8). Beatrice comments on the reason why women should stay single to escape the a suitor like Benedick. The only reason that Beatrice is able to rebel and not her cousin Hero, further strengthens this point of the inferiority of women. Hero is “hidden” from the world by her father, while the orphaned Beatrice can see and witness the way the world is run-that is the way men run the world. Hero, conversely, does not have the capability of lift herself up against the division of masculinity and femininity. She is under her father’s control and is not able to make decisions for herself. Her whole life is about pleasing her father, and making sure that nothing comes in the way of that. The minimum quantity of dialogue from Hero proves that she is suppressed from expressing her own ideas and beliefs. “Daughter, remember what I told you if the prince do solicit you in that kind, you know your answer.” (II.ii 48-4). Leonato makes sure that Hero will accept the Prince’s offer for her hand in marriage. The reader does not hear what Hero’s personal opinions on this matter. She has no choice but to accept what is laid upon her. Beatrice’s rebellion against society, and Hero’s empowerment both show the role of women in Elizabethan times.


Class and status is more of an issue back in the Elizabethan era than it is now. People were born into different ranks of society. Each rank that are allocated to people, serves a different purpose in society. Because of this system, there is a triangle of power which divulges the amount of power, influence, and responsibility restricted to each class. At the top of the triangle lives God and the Angels, the king is underneath them, followed by princes, nobles, working men and women, and at the very bottom are the witches and the insane. The arrow of power works downwards from the triangle which means that the higher the place on the triangle, the more power they have over the lower parts of the triangle. Power intervenes with influence and this works the same way as power works downwards from the triangle. On the contrary, the arrow of responsibility works upwards from the triangle. Thus, the lower down the triangle their class is, the more responsibility that they have over a number of issues. Each class has their own expectations and has to behave according to these expectations. These expectations includes the following of special etiquette such as politeness, and the language they use to address people in different ranks.


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One of the major conflicts in the play, and also a cause of conflict in the play, is Don John. Don John’s alibi for planting the seed of revenge deals with the issue of status. Don John is literally a bastard, the result of illicit coupling. He does not have a place in the class triangle, therefore he is socially unaccepted by society. The interference of an ‘outsider’ into the family was not acknowledged. Compared to his brother, Don Pedro, Don John is nothing what Don Pedro is, and everything what Don Pedro is not. Don Pedro is very much respected and adored by society, and Don John’s only respect that he gets comes from the fact that he is Don Pedro’s brother. Don John has rebelled against his brother before and is only accepted after the reconcilement. “Let me bid you welcome, my lord, being reconciled to the prince your brother.” (I. i 11-115). This instigates his motivation of causing misery. Don Pedro’s right-hand is Claudio. Don John is taken by this felony to avenge Claudio.


Don John Will it serve for any model to build mischief on?…


Borachio Marry, it is your brother’s right hand.


Don John Who, the most exquisite Claudio?…A proper squire! (I.iii 4-)


This was a dialogue between Don John and Borachio when Borachio informs Don John that Claudio is about to wed Hero. This jealousy is created on account of Don Pedro putting more power and trust on Claudio than on his own brother. This great deal is so strong that Don John claims “…only to despite them I will endeavour anything.” (II.ii 4). The comedy aspect to do with social status comes from Dogberry, the Constable of Messina. He is a confused man as he fails to differentiate between social classes. During Dogberry’s cross-examination of Borachio and Conrade, Dogberry causes a fault of addressing people according to their status.


Dogberry …Yours, sirrah?


Conrade I am a gentleman, sir, and my name is Conrade. (IV.ii 11-1)


Dogberry calls Conrade “sirrah” and this a customary form of addressing someone less inferior. In this play, the conflict dealing with status was one cause of deception, misery, and also comedy.


Cultural traditions during Elizabethan England were also evident in this play. Marriage was expected to accustomed in a certain way. The tradition of courtly love was very much accepted. The art of wooing is a typical manner of bringing two lovers together. It was expected that marriage was to be with someone in the same social class and that the woman had to be a virgin. Virginity was a major issue dealt with a lot of young women in the Elizabethan times. Adultery was an unforgivable sin and the chastity of a woman was highly valued. Once a woman was indicted with wrongdoing their chastity, they are soon deprived of their status, honor, inheritance, and worth. These expectations of women were to prevent a bastard intruding the succession of a family and inheriting the family’s wealth.


In this play, the story of two lovers, Claudio and Hero, were joined together by the masked Don Pedro. “I will assume thy part in some disguise, and tell fair Hero I am Claudio, and in her bosom I’ll unclasp my heart…and the conclusion is she shall be thine.” (I.I 4-154). Without Don Pedro fertilising the seeds of love of Claudio in Hero’s heart, there would not exist the plot between Claudio and Hero. But between the love of Claudio and Hero, traditional views of marriage coincides with their love for each other. Don John’s vow to avenge Claudio results in the dishonor of Hero. “…Give not this rotten orange to your friend…Not to be married not to knit my soul to an approv├Ęd wanton…I stand dishonored that have gone about to like my dear friend to a common stale…” (IV. i 5-104). At the wedding of Claudio and Hero, Claudio and Don Pedro publicly humiliates Hero and seize her reputation, worth and honor. Claudio refuses to marry her even though she has not been proven of the accusation she was blamed for. Hero’s own father, placing his status higher than his own daughter, claims how he regrets having her, and wishes that she were dead instead of him living with the shame of having such a daughter. “Do not live, Hero, do not ope thine eyes…this shame derives from unknown loins…she is fallen into a pit of ink, that the wide sea hath drops to few to wash her clean again…” (IV.i 11-16). Leonato here reflects on the shame he feels now that her honor has fallen into this pit of ink. The speeches by both men show that Hero is just a little more than a pawn on a masculine chessboard.


Through this play, William Shakespeare uses conflicts to depict the ideologies that were present during Elizabethan England. These conflicts highlight the ideologies of the imbalance between men and women, the supremacy of higher-ranked people, and the institutions of marriage and chastity. Today, these ideologies has altered to a certain extent. People higher placed in the social ladder, the government for example, has more power over people in the lower part of the ladder. In some countries, even in some families, traditional values of marriage and women chastity still exists. But the greatest amount of change is the uprising of women power as women have the same if not greater power than men.


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Me and myself

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After a ferryboat accident, Huck seems to lose his slave companion Jim after coming ashore. Huck then is introduced to Buck Grangerford (about the same age as Huck) and is allowed to stay in the Grangerford household. The Grangerford family consists of Buck, who is a young adventurous boy, Emmiline, a fourteen-year-old who was dead girl, Bob, Tom, Miss Charlotte, and Miss Sophia. The Grangerfords showed all the signs of being upper class by having an extremely nice house, acting properly, and each member of the family had their own servant. Eventually it becomes apparent to Huck that the Grangerfords are feuding with a neighboring household, the Sheperdsons; this seems to be the central angle Twain uses to satire.


The chapters dealing with the Grangerford and Sheperdson feud allow Twain to satire aspects of civilized culture. The main aspect he satirizes is the feud itself. The Grangerfords being the representatives of civilization, Twain reveals the senseless brutality and needless slaughter involved in their arbitrary concept of honor. For Twain, such a feud goes against his common sense and anything that violated his common sense was crazy. The feud has gone on so long hat the people don’t even know why they are fighting; yet, embedded in the feud are artificial concepts of civilized behavior. For Example, Mr. Grangerford tells Buck that he shouldn’t shoot from behind the bush but he should step out into the road to kill a Sheperdson. Also there is a sense of irony because why would such a civilized family be in a feud that they can’t remember the origin of. Another aspect of it is the Grangeford’s use of hypocrisy. The Grangerfords were “church goers” and in one sermon given by Mr. Grangerford he speaks of brotherly love, this while feuding with a family for a reason they don’t even remember.


Pap, or Huck’s father, is an excellent example of Twain’s stereotyping, superior characterizations, and his irony. Pap comes into the story when Huck feels that something is wrong but it is confirmed by Jim’s hairball. Twain stereotypes Pap as the typical drunken and abusive “white trash.” Pap wants Huck to stop trying to get a better education, stop getting better clothes, and to stop trying to be better than his father. The irony is that Pap is supposed to be mature and civilized, yet he does not want Huck to better himself. Pap represents the brutality and severity of civilization, which threatens to destroy Huck. Pap eventually kidnaps his own son forcing Huck to create an elaborate escape plan which included faking his own demise. Ironically, the same civilized folk who are not overly concerned over Huck’s suffering at the hands of Pap are very curious and excited about locating his dead body.


Twain effectively utilized satire to condemn the pre civil-war society of the south. Twain used techniques of hypocrisy, irony, exaggeration, and stereotyping to further his satirization and provided clear examples of it as well. The Gangerfords and Pap were portrayed as some of the worst society had to offer and provided part of the motivation for Huck to seek asylum on the river.


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BEOWULF

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The heroic epic poem of Beowulf is set in the world of early medieval Northern Europe. The poem takes place in Sweden and Denmark. The author of Beowulf remains unknown. Beowulf is told in the sixth century A.D. The story passes by word of mouth by skops, which are traveling story teller. They tell the story until it is written down. Beowulf is a Viking warrior and a hero that must help king Hrothgar. Beowulf must travel from the land of the Geates to the land of the Danes. King Hrothgar is in trouble because Grendel, Beowulf’s supernatural enemy, is killing innocent people. Beowulf is finally confronted with Grendel. Beowulf defeats and kills Grendel. In revenge, Grendel Dam, Grendel’s mother, wants to kill Beowulf. Beowulf travels under the water to Grendel’s lair. He is then faced by Grendel Dam where he slays her and has another defeat. Beowulf must go up against another malevolent monster, the dragon. During Beowulf’s battle with the dragon, the dragon makes a fatal wound into Beowulf. Before Beowulf’s life comes to an end he had the chance to stab the dragon causing him to die. Beowulf is a hero at the end of the story and has a royal burial. The battle between good and evil are depicted throughout the heroic epic poem. Beowulf struggles with the conflict, Beowulf Vs Grendel, Beowulf VS Grendel Dam, and Beowulf VS The Dragon.


Grendel is a destructive monster that is killing King Hrothgar’s men. His attack is motivated by his resentment of the joy coming from Heorot hall. Grendel poses a threat to the society of


Heorot. Grendel’s size and strength is used in a sinister way. Beowulf must stop Grendel, so he waits for him to come to Heorot. Grendel goes to the Mead Hall to attack and Beowulf rips his arm off, which will wound him fatally. In pain, Grendel returns to his lair. Gendel is an evil offspring of Cain. He devours the flesh and bones of many Danes. This relates to the thesis because it is showing how evil Grendel truly is. In Grendel’s first attack he kills thirty men. Grendel is opposed to God. Grendel is less powerful than Beowulf in fighting. Once Grendel is griped by Beowulf he realizes that Beowulf is a much stronger warrior. Hygelac, Beowulf’s uncle, expresses his opposition to Beowulf defeating Grendel. I long entreated you in no way to attack Grendel, that bloodthirsty demon, but let the South-Danes on their own settle their score with him (Unknown Monk 14-7). Hygelac is upset at Beowulf because he does not want him to solve everyone else’s problems. Beowulf is known as a hero because of his conquer over Grendel. King Hrothgar and his people are very thankful. He is praised so much because Heorot is the people’s source of joy and harmony.


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Hrothgar is looked at as an ideal leader with wisdom, courage, and strength. Since the king no longer posses the strength he once had, he is in need of Beowulf’s services. King Hrothgar called upon Beowulf so that he would not be seen in any way weak or cowardly. He is incapable in bearing





Please note that this sample paper on BEOWULF is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on BEOWULF, we are here to assist you. Your persuasive essay on BEOWULF will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

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Baseball

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Baseball is a fun and active sport played by people of all ages. In the following sections I will try to show people how to properly pitch, hit a ball, and catch a ball. If you want to practise these skills you will need a bat, a ball, a glove, proper attire (pants, shirt), a partner to throw the ball to or hit the ball to, and a field to play on. If you follow the instructions below and practise them often you will soon be a very good player.


Batting


1. You must wait until the umpire calls you to come to the plate to bat. . Step into the middle of the batters box with your chest facing home plate and your side facing home plate.


. keep your feet shoulder width apart, slightly bent and with the weight on your back foot.


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4. hold your arms out from your body with the bat handle in front of your back shoulder.


5. you may wish to take a few practise swings before the pitch is thrown, just to make sure that the end of your bat reaches the far side of the plate.


6. as the pitch is thrown keep your eyes on the ball and your weight on your back leg.


7. slightly raise your front leg and quickly decide if this is the pitch that you are going to swing at.


8. when you get the right pitch step forward and bring your arms forward in an arc motion while your weight shifts from your back leg to your front leg.


. follow through on the pitch and let you wrists roll as the bat comes around to your other shoulder.


10. run to the base and your coach will tell you if you need to run to second or not.


Warning if you take your eyes off the ball you could miss and possibly get hurt.


Pitching


1. Get the sign from your catcher which will tell you what pitch to throw (i.e. fastball, curveball etc.)


. begin your wind up by bringing the glove and ball up towards your chest.


. keep your eyes on the target.


4. slightly raise your leg that is closest to home plate.


5. keep your weight on your back foot.


6. bring your arm back and strive the front foot towards home plate as far as you can without loosing your balance.


7. bring your throwing arm just above your ear with your elbow at a ninety degree angle to the ground.


8. turn your chest so that is square to the target and bring your back leg forward so that you are in good fielding position if the batter hits the ball right to you.


Warning if you dont warm up you could pull a muscle or get injured very bad.


Catching


1. be ready, for when the ball comes to you.


. when the ball does come to you, run as fast as possible to the spot where the ball was hit.


. aim the pocket of your glove at the ball.


4. bring your opposite hand behind your glove for support.


5. when the ball hits your glove clutch your fingers so that you can trap the ball.


6. even if the ball goes foul make your best attempt to catch the ball


7. if there are base runners get the ball to the infield as soon as possible.


Warning do not put your glove in front of your face so that you cant see, if you do it could lead to serious injury.


Pitching, hitting, and catching are the most important part of baseball. If you can perform all of those skills you will have a better time and will be able to play the game properly.


George Herman Ruth (Babe Ruth)


was born on February 6, 185 in Baltimore, Maryland and died on August 16, 148, in New York, New York. He bats left and throws with his left hand. He was elected into the Baseball Hall of Fame in 16. Fresh out of St. Marys Industrial School in Baltimore, he debuted as a pitcher for the Boston Red Sox, winning 8 games over six seasons. He got traded to the Yankees in 10 where he started playing outfield because of his miraculous power, he launched his amazing home run career, with sixty in his first year as outfielder and 714 in his career.


Lynn Nolan Ryan (Nolan Ryan)


was born on January 1, 147 in Refugio, Texas. Nolan bats right and throw with his right hand. He was elected into the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1. He holds several major league pitching records, including most strikeouts (5,714), most no-hitters (7), most games with 15 or more strikeouts (6), and most strikeouts during a single season (8). He was also the only pitcher to strikeout 16 or more batters in a game after the age of 40. Nolan did that three times. Nolan is the only player to play for 7 seasons in the major leagues. Over his career Nolan struck out an average of .55 batters per nine innings pitched, while allowing opposing batters a meagre .04 batting average.


Lawrence Peter Berra (Yogi Berra)


was born on May 1, 15 in St. Louis, Missouri. He was a left handed batter and threw with his right hand. Yogi was elected to the Hall of Fame in 17. Yogi played on fourteen pennant winning teams and ten world champion teams (more than any other player). He set the American league home record for the catchers and topped 100-RBI mark four years in a row. He was a three-time American league MVP and was selected to play in fifteen successful All-star games.


Sammy Sosa


born on November 1, 168. Sammy is a Chicago Cub who surpassed Roger Maris season home run record (61), just after Mark McGwire did, in 18 and finished the year with 66; NL MVP (18); followed up his amazing 18 by hitting 6 HRs in 1 with 141 RBI; 5-time NL all-star (15,8,,00,01) and winner of the 000 Home Run Derby. He played for 14 seasons with several teams but played eleven with the Chicago Cubs.


Ken Griffey Jr.


was born on November 1, 16. He has played in the Major Leagues since 18. He bats left and throws with his left hand. Although he is starting to run into injury troubles he still is predicted to be the guy to shatter Hank Aarons record for most home-runs in a career. Hank hit 755 home-runs and Ken has hit 460, he has a long ways to go still.


World History


Baseball grew out of several centuries of ball and bat games like rounders and town ball which came from England. New York Citys Knickerbockers baseball club made up the rules and field measurements for what was first called baseball in 1845. A game was played that year in Hoboken, New Jersey. That game was recognized as the first official baseball game.


The Knickerbockers club as well as the Civil war, helped spread the game across the world.


The National Baseball League was formed in 1876 and later in 101 the American league came along and formed what is now known as The Major League. In 1, the first ever all-star game was played. The all-star game is a game among the very best baseball players from each league (American and National). The American league defeated the National league. The first ever televised game was played in 1 when the Cincinnati Reds played against the Brooklyn Dodgers. In 147 Jackie Robinson became the first black player to join the league. At the Barcelona, Spain summer Olympics in 1, baseball became an Olympic medal sport.


Canadian History


The first Canadian team in the major leagues was the Hamilton Young Canadians. In 160 they played against Buffalo in the first International game. Nine years later the Montreal Expos came into the major league and then in 177 the Toronto Blue Jays joined the league. The Blue Jays won the World Series in 1 and in 1, as the first non-American team to win the Series. Canada has several amateur leagues and has several leagues for young kids. For example there is a Minor little league, Little league, senior little league, their are leagues that involve older people such as mens slow pitch, and their are several other leagues.


The American League Teams History


ANAHEIM ANGELS (161)


The team opened play as the Los Angeles Angels but became the California Angels when they moved to a new stadium in Anaheim. In 17, the team became known as the Anaheim Angels.


BALTIMORE ORIOLES (101)


During the 101 season, the team played in Milwuakee, then moved to St. Louis in 10 and became known as the Browns. The team moved to Baltimore in 154 and team officials and fans made the call to revive a traditional Baltimore team nickname, the Orioles.


BOSTON RED SOX (101)


In the early years of the American League, the team was known as the Pilgrims or Puritans. The team was also briefly known as the Somersets -- a reference to owner Charles Somers. The team later became known as the Red Stockings, but the teams name was shortened to the current Red Sox by sports writers.


CHICAGO WHITE SOX (101)


Originally the team was called the Invaders because they invaded Chicago before the opening of the 100 season. The team adopted the Chicago White Stockings name used by the National League team in the late 1880s. Sportswriters shortened the name to White Sox when writing headlines.


CLEVELAND INDIANS (101)


Team names have included Broncos, Blues (for the uniform color) and the Naps (in honor of team manager Nap LaJoie). From 11 to 115, the team was called the Molly McGuires because of the large number of Irish players it fielded. In 115, after a losing season, the team ownership decided to make a fresh start and adopted the Indians.


DETROIT TIGERS (101)


The team was originally known as the Wolverines -- named after the former Detroit team in the old National League. Sportswriter Phil Reid of the Detroit Free PRess thought that the teams blue and orange stripes looked like the uniforms looked like those of the Princeton Tigers and he started to call them the Tigers. The name stuck.


KANSAS CITY ROYALS (16)


The name Royals was chosen by the teams fans.


MINNESOTA TWINS (101)


Named for the Twin cities of Minneapolis and St. Paul. The team moved to Minnesota from Washington in 160.


NEW YORK YANKEES (101)


The team first appeared in 101 as the Baltimore Orioles and then moved to New York in 10. The team was originally called the Highlanders for its Hilltop Park. In 114, Jim Price of the New York Press is credited with coming up with the Yankees name.


OAKLAND ATHLETICS (101)


The team began in 101 as the Philadelphia Athletics. The team moved to Kansas City in 155 and then to Oakland in 168.


SEATTLE MARINERS (177)


Named the Mariners to reflect the nautical heritage of Washington State.


TAMPA BAY DEVIL RAYS (18)


The team name was chosen by the Tampa Bay fans.


TEXAS RANGERS (161)


From 160-171, the team was known as the Washington Senators. The franchise left Washington in 171 and moved to Texas. The team name was chosen to honor Texas legendary law enforcement group.


TORONTO BLUE JAYS (177)


The team name was chosen in a fan contest.


The National League Teams History


ARIZONA DIAMONDBACKS (18)


The name was chosen by the fans.


ATLANTA BRAVES (1876)


The team began in Boston, then moved to Milwaukee in 15 and then to Atlanta in 165. As a member of the National Assocation, the team was known as the Red Caps. Later, the team became the Red Stockings, but was most commonly was known as the Beaneaters. In 11, the team became known as the Braves because owner Jim Galtney was a Tammany Hall chieftain. The teams names have also included the Pilgrims, Doves and Bees.


CHICAGO CUBS (1876)


Originally known as the White Stockings, the team was later known as the Colts, Orphans, Cowbowys and Broncos. In 101, two sportswriters started calling the team the Cubs because it was loaded with very young players and the name stuck.


CINCINNATI REDS (180)


Named for the abbreviated form of Red Stockings as a tribute to the great Cincinnati team of the 1860s. Called the Red Legs briefly in the 140s during the time of the Communist scare.


COLORADO ROCKIES (1)


The team took the nickname used by several previous teams in the Denver area.


FLORIDA MARLINS (1)


The team was named after the Miami Marlins, a former AAA franchise.


HOUSTON ASTROS (167)


The team was orginally known as the Colt 45s, but became known as the Astros when the Astrodome opened.


LOS ANGELES DODGERS (180)


In 188, the team located in Brooklyn picked up the nickname Bridegrooms after three players got married in the offseason. Other names have included the Superbas, the Atlantics and the Robins. By World War I, the team had become known as the Dodgers. The name had its root in the term New Yorkers used to describe Brooklyn residents -- trolley dodgers. In 158, the team moved to Los Angeles and kept the Dodgers nickname.


MILWAUKEE BREWERS (170)


Brewers was the name of the first National League team in Milwaukee in 1878, the name of the first American League team there in 101 and the minor league American Association team.


MONTREAL EXPOS (16)


The team was named after Expo 67, the Worlds Fair.


NEW YORK METS (16)


Short for Metropolitans. This team name is a throwback to New Yorks American Association franchise of the late 1800s. The team also selected its team colors of blue and orange as a tribute to the Giants and Dodgers, two teams that had left New York for the West Coast.


PHILADELPHIA PHILLIES (188)


The name for the original National League team in Philadelphia. Also spelled Fillies in the early days. The team was briefly known as the Quakers and Bluejays.


PITTSBURGH PIRATES (1887)


Originally known as the Alleghenies when it was a part of the American Association. The team was later known as the Innocents after they left the American Association to join the National League. The team got its current name because it pirated Lou Bierbauer, star second baseman from the Philadelphia American Association team.


ST. LOUIS CARDINALS (18)


The team was originally known as the St. Louis Browns in the American Association. Other names included the Maroons and the Perfectos. A sportswriter noticed the red trim on the teams jerseys and coined the Cardinals name.


Baseball Rules


1.Baseball is a game between two teams of nine players each, under direction of a manager, played on an enclosed field in accordance with these rules, under jurisdiction of one or more umpires.


.The objective of each team is to win by scoring more runs than the opponent.


.The winner of the game shall be that team which shall have scored, in accordance with these rules, the greater number of runs at the conclusion of a regulation game.


4. THE PLAYING FIELD. The field shall be laid out according to the instructions below, supplemented by Diagrams No. 1, No. and No. . The infield shall be a 0 foot square. The outfield shall be the area between two foul lines formed by extending two sides of the square, as in Diagram 1. The distance from home base to the nearest fence, stand or other obstruction on fair territory shall be 50 feet or more. A distance of 0 feet or more along the foul lines, and 400 feet or more to center field is preferable. The infield shall be graded so that the base lines and home plate are level. The pitchers plate shall be 10 inches above the level of home plate. The degree of slope from a point 6 inches in front of the pitchers plate to a point 6 feet toward home plate shall be 1 inch to 1 foot, and such degree of slope shall be uniform. The infield and outfield, including the boundary lines, are fair territory and all other area is foul territory. It is desirable that the line from home base through the pitchers plate to second base shall run East Northeast. It is recommended that the distance from home base to the backstop, and from the base lines to the nearest fence, stand or other obstruction on foul territory shall be 60 feet or more. See Diagram 1. When location of home base is determined, with a steel tape measure 17 feet, /8 inches in desired direction to establish second base. From home base, measure 0 feet toward first base; from second base, measure 0 feet toward first base; the intersection of these lines establishes first base. From home base, measure 0 feet toward third base; from second base, measure 0 feet toward third base; the intersection of these lines establishes third base. The distance between first base and third base is 17 feet, /8 inches. All measurements from home base shall be taken from the point where the first and third base lines intersect. The catchers box, the batters boxes, the coaches boxes, the three foot first base lines and the next batters boxes shall be laid out as shown in Diagrams 1 and . The foul lines and all other playing lines indicated in the diagrams by solid black lines shall be marked with wet, unslaked lime, chalk or other white material. The grass lines and dimensions shown on the diagrams are those used in many fields, but they are not mandatory and each club shall determine the size and shape of the grassed and bare areas of its playing field. NOTE (a) Any Playing Field constructed by a professional club after June 1, 158, shall provide a minimum distance of 5 feet from home base to the nearest fence, stand or other obstruction on the right and left field foul lines, and a minimum distance of 400 feet to the center field fence. (b) No existing playing field shall be remodeled after June 1, 158, in such manner as to reduce the distance from home base to the foul poles and to the center field fence below the minimum specified in paragraph (a) above.


5. Home base shall be marked by a five sided slab of whitened rubber. It shall be a 17 inch square with two of the corners removed so that one edge is 17 inches long, two adjacent sides are 8 1/ inches and the remaining two sides are 1 inches and set at an angle to make a point. It shall be set in the ground with the point at the intersection of the lines extending from home base to first base and to third base; with the 17 inch edge facing the pitchers plate, and the two 1 inch edges coinciding with the first and third base lines. The top edges of home base shall be beveled and the base shall be fixed in the ground level with the ground surface. Diagram


6. First, second and third bases shall be marked by white canvas bags, securely attached to the ground as indicated in Diagram . The first and third base bags shall be entirely within the infield. The second base bag shall be centered on second base. The bags shall be 15 inches square, not less than three nor more than five inches thick, and filled with soft material.


7. The pitchers plate shall be a rectangular slab of whitened rubber, 4 inches by 6 inches. It shall be set in the ground as shown in Diagrams 1 and , so that the distance between the pitchers plate and home base (the rear point of home plate) shall be 60 feet, 6 inches.


8. The home club shall furnish players benches, one each for the home and visiting teams. Such benches shall not be less than twenty five feet from the base lines. They shall be roofed and shall be enclosed at the back and ends.


. The ball shall be a sphere formed by yarn wound around a small core of cork, rubber or similar material, covered with two stripes of white horsehide or cowhide, tightly stitched together. It shall weigh not less than five nor more than 5 1/4 ounces avoirdupois and measure not less than nine nor more than 1/4 inches in circumference.


10.


(a) The bat shall be a smooth, round stick not more than /4 inches in diameter at the thickest part and not more than 4 inches in length. The bat shall be one piece of solid wood. (b) Cupped Bats. An indentation in the end of the bat up to one inch in depth is permitted and may be no wider than two inches and no less than one inch in diameter. The indentation must be curved with no foreign substance added. (c) The bat handle, for not more than 18 inches from its end, may be covered or treated with any material or substance to improve the grip. Any such material or substance, which extends past the 18 inch limitation, shall cause the bat to be removed from the game. NOTE If the umpire discovers that the bat does not conform to (c) above until a time during or after which the bat has been used in play, it shall not be grounds for declaring the batter out, or ejected from the game. (d) No colored bat may be used in a professional game unless approved by the Rules Committee.


11. (a) (1) All players on a team shall wear uniforms identical in color, trim and style, and all players uniforms shall include minimal six inch numbers on their backs. () Any part of an undershirt exposed to view shall be of a uniform solid color for all players on a team. Any player other than the pitcher may have numbers, letters, insignia attached to the sleeve of the undershirt. () No player whose uniform does not conform to that of his teammates shall be permitted to participate in a game. (b) A league may provide that (1) each team shall wear a distinctive uniform at all times, or () that each team shall have two sets of uniforms, white for home games and a different color for road games. (c) (1) Sleeve lengths may vary for individual players, but the sleeves of each individual player shall be approximately the same length. () No player shall wear ragged, frayed or slit sleeves. (d) No player shall attach to his uniform tape or other material of a different color from his uniform. (e) No part of the uniform shall include a pattern that imitates or suggests the shape of a baseball. (f) Glass buttons and polished metal shall not be used on a uniform. (g) No player shall attach anything to the heel or toe of his shoe other than the ordinary shoe plate or toe plate. Shoes with pointed spikes similar to golf or track shoes shall not be worn. (h) No part of the uniform shall include patches or designs relating to commercial advertisements. (i) A league may provide that the uniforms of its member teams include the names of its players on their backs. Any name other than the last name of the player must be approved by the League President. If adopted, all uniforms for a team must have the names of its players.


1. The catcher may wear a leather mitt not more than thirty eight inches in circumference, nor more than fifteen and one half inches from top to bottom. Such limits shall include all lacing and any leather band or facing attached to the outer edge of the mitt. The space between the thumb section and the finger section of the mitt shall not exceed six inches at the top of the mitt and four inches at the base of the thumb crotch. The web shall measure not more than seven inches across the top or more than six inches from its top to the base of the thumb crotch. The web may be either a lacing or lacing through leather tunnels, or a center piece of leather which may be an extension of the palm, connected to the mitt with lacing and constructed so that it will not exceed any of the above mentioned measurements.


1. The first baseman may wear a leather glove or mitt not more than twelve inches long from top to bottom and not more than eight inches wide across the palm, measured from the base of the thumb crotch to the outer edge of the mitt. The space between the thumb section and the finger section of the mitt shall not exceed four inches at the top of the mitt and three and one half inches at the base of the thumb crotch. The mitt shall be constructed so that this space is permanently fixed and cannot be enlarged, extended, widened, or deepened by the use of any materials or process whatever. The web of the mitt shall measure not more than five inches from its top to the base of the thumb crotch. The web may be either a lacing, lacing through leather tunnels, or a center piece of leather which may be an extension of the palm connected to the mitt with lacing and constructed so that it will not exceed the above mentioned measurements. The webbing shall not be constructed of wound or wrapped lacing or deepened to make a net type of trap. The glove may be of any weight.


14. Each fielder, other than the first baseman or catcher, may use or wear a leather glove. The measurements covering size of glove shall be made by measuring front side or ball receiving side of glove. The tool or measuring tape shall be placed to contact the surface or feature of item being measured and follow all contours in the process. The glove shall not measure more than 1 from the tip of any one of the 4 fingers, through the ball pocket to the bottom edge or heel of glove. The glove shall not measure more than 7 /4 wide, measured from the inside seam at base of first finger, along base of other fingers, to the outside edge of little finger edge of glove. The space or area between the thumb and first finger, called crotch, may be filled with leather webbing or back stop. The webbing may be constructed of two plies of standard leather to close the crotch area entirely, or it may be constructed of a series of tunnels made of leather, or a series of panels of leather, or of lacing leather thongs. The webbing may not be constructed of wound or wrapped lacing to make a net type of trap. When webbing is made to cover entire crotch area, the webbing can be constructed so as to be flexible. When constructed of a series of sections, they must be joined together. These sections may not be so constructed to allow depression to be developed by curvatures in the section sides. The webbing shall be made to control the size of the crotch opening. The crotch opening shall measure not more than 4 1/ at the top, not more than 5 /4 deep, and shall be 1/ wide at its bottom. The opening of crotch shall not be more than 4 1/ at any point below its top. The webbing shall be secured at each side, and at top and bottom of crotch. The attachment to be made with leather lacing, these connections to be secured. If they stretch or become loose, they shall be adjusted to their proper condition. The glove can be of any weight.


15. (a) The pitchers glove shall be uniform in color, including all stitching, lacing and webbing. The pitchers glove may not be white or gray.


(b) No pitcher shall attach to his glove any foreign material of a color different from the glove.


Skills


Running- You need to be able to run, so that you can run around the bases before you get out.


Throwing- Throwing is essential to playing the game baseball because if you cant throw you cant get the ball to a certain spot (i.e. to first base, second base, etc.) before the opponent reaches that spot.


Catching- Catching is a very improtant skill in baseball because if you cant catch the ball you will never get the other team out so you will never end the inning.


Hitting- You need to be able to hit the ball because if you dont you will never have fun plaing because hitting the ball is the most fun. It is also the only way to score a run.


Keep fit, have fun, enjoy life, stay healthy


When I thought of this motto I was thinking what things you have to do to have a healthy life. If all of the things said in the motto are done right and you have fun doing them you will enjoy the time you have living. When you are not fit you will have health problems but if you are fit you will go through live without as much health problems as you would if not fit. Enjoying life is the most important part about life and if you dont enjoy your life you are not wanting to live, when people dont enjoy life they can do several dangerous things (i.e. kill themselves, run away etc.)


Equipment


Helmet- a helmet protects you from the ball which comes at you at very high speeds an without a helmet you could get severely injured. Cost $50.


Glove- although you can play baseball without a glove you can break your hand by just catching the ball once. A glove will comfort your hand and ensure that there are no instant broken hands. Cost depending on the type of glove the cost for a first baseman glove is $104., for a catchers glove it costs $11., and for a regular glove it would cost $4.


First baseman glove Fielders glove Catchers glove


Bats- a bat is the only way you are aloud to hit a ball. If you didnt have a bat you wouldnt be able to play the game. The cost for a wooden bat is $1. and an aluminium bat is $114..





Wooden bats Aluminium bat


Bases- without bases you wouldnt know where to pitche the ball or where to step for a hit, or even where the legal spot to have your foot while pitching. The cost for home plate is $15 and the pitchers mound is also $15. First, second, and third base are $85 for all three.








Home plate, Pitchers mound, first, second, and third


The balls- balls are the most important thing in baseball. If there was no baseballs the wouldnt be a game of this type. Balls cost $8 for one but if you buy a dozen they are $1.50 for all twelve


The total cost of all the items is $604.84 (tax included). Although you couldnt play baseball without all these items, you dont always have to buy them. Most often the league that you play in buys them for the team that you are on and the other teams in that league.Nutrition Plan


Breakfast is the most important meal of the day. In order to feel good throughout the day you must eat a well balanced breakfast. If I was a professional athlete I would eat a whole wheat bagel, and two strawberry yogurts (14 millilitres), and a medium sized glass of orange juice. I chose that type of breakfast because it has a large amount of complex carbohydrates. For lunch I would have a turkey sandwich on whole wheat bread, and an apple, and a glass of water. I choose that lunch because it includes a high source of protein and carbohydrates. Finally for supper I would eat a salad, lasagne, and some carrots and broccoli, as well as a glass of milk. I chose that to eat because it includes high protein foods, and high complex carbohydrate foods.


Carbohydrates are important to eat because they are the major source of energy. Protein is important because they provide amino acids and nitrogen for the repair of cells and muscles. Fat is important because it is an essential nutrient for every muscle in your body.





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Anorexia

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A teenage girl sees the skinny fashion models on television, and in magizines. When she sees them, and other thin people, she feels like the biggest person in the world. To make herself look thinner, she decides to puke up her food after she eats it, so she wont gain any weight. By doing this, it doesnt make her body look pretty and thin, but it makes her look sick, and severly hurts her body. Many girls do this for various reasons, thinking their body will look good, but the consequences of it are horrible.


Teens have eating disorders for many reasons. Most of the time it is because they might be a couple of pounds overweight and not at the top of the social list, so others tease them. To make them feel thinner and more popular, they starve themselves or regurgitate their food for a couple of days. By doing this, they loose a lot of weight in a short amount of time, so they keep on doing it until either they cant stop and have to seek professonal help, or until it is too late. In other cases, the girl isnt overweight, and is popular, but she feels larger than her friends. She, like the other girl, doesnt eat, or vomits up her food until she is down to the same size as her friends. But she continues to do this, because in her mind, she can never be too thin. Sure, she thinks she is thin and pretty now, but the outcome of this isnt very pretty.


When a teen has an eating disorder, it doesnt just affect themselves, but it also has a powerful impact on the people around them, such as their family and friends. Parents become worried when their teen begins loosing severe amount of weight. When they ask them if they are starving themselves or regurgitating their food, the victim usally denies it. The best thing the parents can do is to seek professonal help immitiatly.


The consequences of having eating disorders are very severe. When a person induces themselves to vomit up their food, their salivary glands can swell. Eating disorders can cause kidney and liver damage, as well as destruction of teeth, rupture of the esophagus, and loss of muscle mass. Their immune system also gets weakened, making them more suseptable to other diseases and sicknesses. The worst, and most severe consequence is, by far, death.


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Children in todays society need to learn about the long-term effects of eating disorders first hand. Schools should have people who have lived through an eating disorder speak to the students about their unfortunate experience. The speakers should also tell the children about the consequences of eating disorders. This way, the children know about the consequences of it, and will not have a desire to have an eating disorder.


I think, if children are educated about the consequences and risks of eating disorders, such as death, they will stay away from them, and help others to as well.





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