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Baseball is a fun and active sport played by people of all ages. In the following sections I will try to show people how to properly pitch, hit a ball, and catch a ball. If you want to practise these skills you will need a bat, a ball, a glove, proper attire (pants, shirt), a partner to throw the ball to or hit the ball to, and a field to play on. If you follow the instructions below and practise them often you will soon be a very good player.


Batting


1. You must wait until the umpire calls you to come to the plate to bat. . Step into the middle of the batters box with your chest facing home plate and your side facing home plate.


. keep your feet shoulder width apart, slightly bent and with the weight on your back foot.


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4. hold your arms out from your body with the bat handle in front of your back shoulder.


5. you may wish to take a few practise swings before the pitch is thrown, just to make sure that the end of your bat reaches the far side of the plate.


6. as the pitch is thrown keep your eyes on the ball and your weight on your back leg.


7. slightly raise your front leg and quickly decide if this is the pitch that you are going to swing at.


8. when you get the right pitch step forward and bring your arms forward in an arc motion while your weight shifts from your back leg to your front leg.


. follow through on the pitch and let you wrists roll as the bat comes around to your other shoulder.


10. run to the base and your coach will tell you if you need to run to second or not.


Warning if you take your eyes off the ball you could miss and possibly get hurt.


Pitching


1. Get the sign from your catcher which will tell you what pitch to throw (i.e. fastball, curveball etc.)


. begin your wind up by bringing the glove and ball up towards your chest.


. keep your eyes on the target.


4. slightly raise your leg that is closest to home plate.


5. keep your weight on your back foot.


6. bring your arm back and strive the front foot towards home plate as far as you can without loosing your balance.


7. bring your throwing arm just above your ear with your elbow at a ninety degree angle to the ground.


8. turn your chest so that is square to the target and bring your back leg forward so that you are in good fielding position if the batter hits the ball right to you.


Warning if you dont warm up you could pull a muscle or get injured very bad.


Catching


1. be ready, for when the ball comes to you.


. when the ball does come to you, run as fast as possible to the spot where the ball was hit.


. aim the pocket of your glove at the ball.


4. bring your opposite hand behind your glove for support.


5. when the ball hits your glove clutch your fingers so that you can trap the ball.


6. even if the ball goes foul make your best attempt to catch the ball


7. if there are base runners get the ball to the infield as soon as possible.


Warning do not put your glove in front of your face so that you cant see, if you do it could lead to serious injury.


Pitching, hitting, and catching are the most important part of baseball. If you can perform all of those skills you will have a better time and will be able to play the game properly.


George Herman Ruth (Babe Ruth)


was born on February 6, 185 in Baltimore, Maryland and died on August 16, 148, in New York, New York. He bats left and throws with his left hand. He was elected into the Baseball Hall of Fame in 16. Fresh out of St. Marys Industrial School in Baltimore, he debuted as a pitcher for the Boston Red Sox, winning 8 games over six seasons. He got traded to the Yankees in 10 where he started playing outfield because of his miraculous power, he launched his amazing home run career, with sixty in his first year as outfielder and 714 in his career.


Lynn Nolan Ryan (Nolan Ryan)


was born on January 1, 147 in Refugio, Texas. Nolan bats right and throw with his right hand. He was elected into the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1. He holds several major league pitching records, including most strikeouts (5,714), most no-hitters (7), most games with 15 or more strikeouts (6), and most strikeouts during a single season (8). He was also the only pitcher to strikeout 16 or more batters in a game after the age of 40. Nolan did that three times. Nolan is the only player to play for 7 seasons in the major leagues. Over his career Nolan struck out an average of .55 batters per nine innings pitched, while allowing opposing batters a meagre .04 batting average.


Lawrence Peter Berra (Yogi Berra)


was born on May 1, 15 in St. Louis, Missouri. He was a left handed batter and threw with his right hand. Yogi was elected to the Hall of Fame in 17. Yogi played on fourteen pennant winning teams and ten world champion teams (more than any other player). He set the American league home record for the catchers and topped 100-RBI mark four years in a row. He was a three-time American league MVP and was selected to play in fifteen successful All-star games.


Sammy Sosa


born on November 1, 168. Sammy is a Chicago Cub who surpassed Roger Maris season home run record (61), just after Mark McGwire did, in 18 and finished the year with 66; NL MVP (18); followed up his amazing 18 by hitting 6 HRs in 1 with 141 RBI; 5-time NL all-star (15,8,,00,01) and winner of the 000 Home Run Derby. He played for 14 seasons with several teams but played eleven with the Chicago Cubs.


Ken Griffey Jr.


was born on November 1, 16. He has played in the Major Leagues since 18. He bats left and throws with his left hand. Although he is starting to run into injury troubles he still is predicted to be the guy to shatter Hank Aarons record for most home-runs in a career. Hank hit 755 home-runs and Ken has hit 460, he has a long ways to go still.


World History


Baseball grew out of several centuries of ball and bat games like rounders and town ball which came from England. New York Citys Knickerbockers baseball club made up the rules and field measurements for what was first called baseball in 1845. A game was played that year in Hoboken, New Jersey. That game was recognized as the first official baseball game.


The Knickerbockers club as well as the Civil war, helped spread the game across the world.


The National Baseball League was formed in 1876 and later in 101 the American league came along and formed what is now known as The Major League. In 1, the first ever all-star game was played. The all-star game is a game among the very best baseball players from each league (American and National). The American league defeated the National league. The first ever televised game was played in 1 when the Cincinnati Reds played against the Brooklyn Dodgers. In 147 Jackie Robinson became the first black player to join the league. At the Barcelona, Spain summer Olympics in 1, baseball became an Olympic medal sport.


Canadian History


The first Canadian team in the major leagues was the Hamilton Young Canadians. In 160 they played against Buffalo in the first International game. Nine years later the Montreal Expos came into the major league and then in 177 the Toronto Blue Jays joined the league. The Blue Jays won the World Series in 1 and in 1, as the first non-American team to win the Series. Canada has several amateur leagues and has several leagues for young kids. For example there is a Minor little league, Little league, senior little league, their are leagues that involve older people such as mens slow pitch, and their are several other leagues.


The American League Teams History


ANAHEIM ANGELS (161)


The team opened play as the Los Angeles Angels but became the California Angels when they moved to a new stadium in Anaheim. In 17, the team became known as the Anaheim Angels.


BALTIMORE ORIOLES (101)


During the 101 season, the team played in Milwuakee, then moved to St. Louis in 10 and became known as the Browns. The team moved to Baltimore in 154 and team officials and fans made the call to revive a traditional Baltimore team nickname, the Orioles.


BOSTON RED SOX (101)


In the early years of the American League, the team was known as the Pilgrims or Puritans. The team was also briefly known as the Somersets -- a reference to owner Charles Somers. The team later became known as the Red Stockings, but the teams name was shortened to the current Red Sox by sports writers.


CHICAGO WHITE SOX (101)


Originally the team was called the Invaders because they invaded Chicago before the opening of the 100 season. The team adopted the Chicago White Stockings name used by the National League team in the late 1880s. Sportswriters shortened the name to White Sox when writing headlines.


CLEVELAND INDIANS (101)


Team names have included Broncos, Blues (for the uniform color) and the Naps (in honor of team manager Nap LaJoie). From 11 to 115, the team was called the Molly McGuires because of the large number of Irish players it fielded. In 115, after a losing season, the team ownership decided to make a fresh start and adopted the Indians.


DETROIT TIGERS (101)


The team was originally known as the Wolverines -- named after the former Detroit team in the old National League. Sportswriter Phil Reid of the Detroit Free PRess thought that the teams blue and orange stripes looked like the uniforms looked like those of the Princeton Tigers and he started to call them the Tigers. The name stuck.


KANSAS CITY ROYALS (16)


The name Royals was chosen by the teams fans.


MINNESOTA TWINS (101)


Named for the Twin cities of Minneapolis and St. Paul. The team moved to Minnesota from Washington in 160.


NEW YORK YANKEES (101)


The team first appeared in 101 as the Baltimore Orioles and then moved to New York in 10. The team was originally called the Highlanders for its Hilltop Park. In 114, Jim Price of the New York Press is credited with coming up with the Yankees name.


OAKLAND ATHLETICS (101)


The team began in 101 as the Philadelphia Athletics. The team moved to Kansas City in 155 and then to Oakland in 168.


SEATTLE MARINERS (177)


Named the Mariners to reflect the nautical heritage of Washington State.


TAMPA BAY DEVIL RAYS (18)


The team name was chosen by the Tampa Bay fans.


TEXAS RANGERS (161)


From 160-171, the team was known as the Washington Senators. The franchise left Washington in 171 and moved to Texas. The team name was chosen to honor Texas legendary law enforcement group.


TORONTO BLUE JAYS (177)


The team name was chosen in a fan contest.


The National League Teams History


ARIZONA DIAMONDBACKS (18)


The name was chosen by the fans.


ATLANTA BRAVES (1876)


The team began in Boston, then moved to Milwaukee in 15 and then to Atlanta in 165. As a member of the National Assocation, the team was known as the Red Caps. Later, the team became the Red Stockings, but was most commonly was known as the Beaneaters. In 11, the team became known as the Braves because owner Jim Galtney was a Tammany Hall chieftain. The teams names have also included the Pilgrims, Doves and Bees.


CHICAGO CUBS (1876)


Originally known as the White Stockings, the team was later known as the Colts, Orphans, Cowbowys and Broncos. In 101, two sportswriters started calling the team the Cubs because it was loaded with very young players and the name stuck.


CINCINNATI REDS (180)


Named for the abbreviated form of Red Stockings as a tribute to the great Cincinnati team of the 1860s. Called the Red Legs briefly in the 140s during the time of the Communist scare.


COLORADO ROCKIES (1)


The team took the nickname used by several previous teams in the Denver area.


FLORIDA MARLINS (1)


The team was named after the Miami Marlins, a former AAA franchise.


HOUSTON ASTROS (167)


The team was orginally known as the Colt 45s, but became known as the Astros when the Astrodome opened.


LOS ANGELES DODGERS (180)


In 188, the team located in Brooklyn picked up the nickname Bridegrooms after three players got married in the offseason. Other names have included the Superbas, the Atlantics and the Robins. By World War I, the team had become known as the Dodgers. The name had its root in the term New Yorkers used to describe Brooklyn residents -- trolley dodgers. In 158, the team moved to Los Angeles and kept the Dodgers nickname.


MILWAUKEE BREWERS (170)


Brewers was the name of the first National League team in Milwaukee in 1878, the name of the first American League team there in 101 and the minor league American Association team.


MONTREAL EXPOS (16)


The team was named after Expo 67, the Worlds Fair.


NEW YORK METS (16)


Short for Metropolitans. This team name is a throwback to New Yorks American Association franchise of the late 1800s. The team also selected its team colors of blue and orange as a tribute to the Giants and Dodgers, two teams that had left New York for the West Coast.


PHILADELPHIA PHILLIES (188)


The name for the original National League team in Philadelphia. Also spelled Fillies in the early days. The team was briefly known as the Quakers and Bluejays.


PITTSBURGH PIRATES (1887)


Originally known as the Alleghenies when it was a part of the American Association. The team was later known as the Innocents after they left the American Association to join the National League. The team got its current name because it pirated Lou Bierbauer, star second baseman from the Philadelphia American Association team.


ST. LOUIS CARDINALS (18)


The team was originally known as the St. Louis Browns in the American Association. Other names included the Maroons and the Perfectos. A sportswriter noticed the red trim on the teams jerseys and coined the Cardinals name.


Baseball Rules


1.Baseball is a game between two teams of nine players each, under direction of a manager, played on an enclosed field in accordance with these rules, under jurisdiction of one or more umpires.


.The objective of each team is to win by scoring more runs than the opponent.


.The winner of the game shall be that team which shall have scored, in accordance with these rules, the greater number of runs at the conclusion of a regulation game.


4. THE PLAYING FIELD. The field shall be laid out according to the instructions below, supplemented by Diagrams No. 1, No. and No. . The infield shall be a 0 foot square. The outfield shall be the area between two foul lines formed by extending two sides of the square, as in Diagram 1. The distance from home base to the nearest fence, stand or other obstruction on fair territory shall be 50 feet or more. A distance of 0 feet or more along the foul lines, and 400 feet or more to center field is preferable. The infield shall be graded so that the base lines and home plate are level. The pitchers plate shall be 10 inches above the level of home plate. The degree of slope from a point 6 inches in front of the pitchers plate to a point 6 feet toward home plate shall be 1 inch to 1 foot, and such degree of slope shall be uniform. The infield and outfield, including the boundary lines, are fair territory and all other area is foul territory. It is desirable that the line from home base through the pitchers plate to second base shall run East Northeast. It is recommended that the distance from home base to the backstop, and from the base lines to the nearest fence, stand or other obstruction on foul territory shall be 60 feet or more. See Diagram 1. When location of home base is determined, with a steel tape measure 17 feet, /8 inches in desired direction to establish second base. From home base, measure 0 feet toward first base; from second base, measure 0 feet toward first base; the intersection of these lines establishes first base. From home base, measure 0 feet toward third base; from second base, measure 0 feet toward third base; the intersection of these lines establishes third base. The distance between first base and third base is 17 feet, /8 inches. All measurements from home base shall be taken from the point where the first and third base lines intersect. The catchers box, the batters boxes, the coaches boxes, the three foot first base lines and the next batters boxes shall be laid out as shown in Diagrams 1 and . The foul lines and all other playing lines indicated in the diagrams by solid black lines shall be marked with wet, unslaked lime, chalk or other white material. The grass lines and dimensions shown on the diagrams are those used in many fields, but they are not mandatory and each club shall determine the size and shape of the grassed and bare areas of its playing field. NOTE (a) Any Playing Field constructed by a professional club after June 1, 158, shall provide a minimum distance of 5 feet from home base to the nearest fence, stand or other obstruction on the right and left field foul lines, and a minimum distance of 400 feet to the center field fence. (b) No existing playing field shall be remodeled after June 1, 158, in such manner as to reduce the distance from home base to the foul poles and to the center field fence below the minimum specified in paragraph (a) above.


5. Home base shall be marked by a five sided slab of whitened rubber. It shall be a 17 inch square with two of the corners removed so that one edge is 17 inches long, two adjacent sides are 8 1/ inches and the remaining two sides are 1 inches and set at an angle to make a point. It shall be set in the ground with the point at the intersection of the lines extending from home base to first base and to third base; with the 17 inch edge facing the pitchers plate, and the two 1 inch edges coinciding with the first and third base lines. The top edges of home base shall be beveled and the base shall be fixed in the ground level with the ground surface. Diagram


6. First, second and third bases shall be marked by white canvas bags, securely attached to the ground as indicated in Diagram . The first and third base bags shall be entirely within the infield. The second base bag shall be centered on second base. The bags shall be 15 inches square, not less than three nor more than five inches thick, and filled with soft material.


7. The pitchers plate shall be a rectangular slab of whitened rubber, 4 inches by 6 inches. It shall be set in the ground as shown in Diagrams 1 and , so that the distance between the pitchers plate and home base (the rear point of home plate) shall be 60 feet, 6 inches.


8. The home club shall furnish players benches, one each for the home and visiting teams. Such benches shall not be less than twenty five feet from the base lines. They shall be roofed and shall be enclosed at the back and ends.


. The ball shall be a sphere formed by yarn wound around a small core of cork, rubber or similar material, covered with two stripes of white horsehide or cowhide, tightly stitched together. It shall weigh not less than five nor more than 5 1/4 ounces avoirdupois and measure not less than nine nor more than 1/4 inches in circumference.


10.


(a) The bat shall be a smooth, round stick not more than /4 inches in diameter at the thickest part and not more than 4 inches in length. The bat shall be one piece of solid wood. (b) Cupped Bats. An indentation in the end of the bat up to one inch in depth is permitted and may be no wider than two inches and no less than one inch in diameter. The indentation must be curved with no foreign substance added. (c) The bat handle, for not more than 18 inches from its end, may be covered or treated with any material or substance to improve the grip. Any such material or substance, which extends past the 18 inch limitation, shall cause the bat to be removed from the game. NOTE If the umpire discovers that the bat does not conform to (c) above until a time during or after which the bat has been used in play, it shall not be grounds for declaring the batter out, or ejected from the game. (d) No colored bat may be used in a professional game unless approved by the Rules Committee.


11. (a) (1) All players on a team shall wear uniforms identical in color, trim and style, and all players uniforms shall include minimal six inch numbers on their backs. () Any part of an undershirt exposed to view shall be of a uniform solid color for all players on a team. Any player other than the pitcher may have numbers, letters, insignia attached to the sleeve of the undershirt. () No player whose uniform does not conform to that of his teammates shall be permitted to participate in a game. (b) A league may provide that (1) each team shall wear a distinctive uniform at all times, or () that each team shall have two sets of uniforms, white for home games and a different color for road games. (c) (1) Sleeve lengths may vary for individual players, but the sleeves of each individual player shall be approximately the same length. () No player shall wear ragged, frayed or slit sleeves. (d) No player shall attach to his uniform tape or other material of a different color from his uniform. (e) No part of the uniform shall include a pattern that imitates or suggests the shape of a baseball. (f) Glass buttons and polished metal shall not be used on a uniform. (g) No player shall attach anything to the heel or toe of his shoe other than the ordinary shoe plate or toe plate. Shoes with pointed spikes similar to golf or track shoes shall not be worn. (h) No part of the uniform shall include patches or designs relating to commercial advertisements. (i) A league may provide that the uniforms of its member teams include the names of its players on their backs. Any name other than the last name of the player must be approved by the League President. If adopted, all uniforms for a team must have the names of its players.


1. The catcher may wear a leather mitt not more than thirty eight inches in circumference, nor more than fifteen and one half inches from top to bottom. Such limits shall include all lacing and any leather band or facing attached to the outer edge of the mitt. The space between the thumb section and the finger section of the mitt shall not exceed six inches at the top of the mitt and four inches at the base of the thumb crotch. The web shall measure not more than seven inches across the top or more than six inches from its top to the base of the thumb crotch. The web may be either a lacing or lacing through leather tunnels, or a center piece of leather which may be an extension of the palm, connected to the mitt with lacing and constructed so that it will not exceed any of the above mentioned measurements.


1. The first baseman may wear a leather glove or mitt not more than twelve inches long from top to bottom and not more than eight inches wide across the palm, measured from the base of the thumb crotch to the outer edge of the mitt. The space between the thumb section and the finger section of the mitt shall not exceed four inches at the top of the mitt and three and one half inches at the base of the thumb crotch. The mitt shall be constructed so that this space is permanently fixed and cannot be enlarged, extended, widened, or deepened by the use of any materials or process whatever. The web of the mitt shall measure not more than five inches from its top to the base of the thumb crotch. The web may be either a lacing, lacing through leather tunnels, or a center piece of leather which may be an extension of the palm connected to the mitt with lacing and constructed so that it will not exceed the above mentioned measurements. The webbing shall not be constructed of wound or wrapped lacing or deepened to make a net type of trap. The glove may be of any weight.


14. Each fielder, other than the first baseman or catcher, may use or wear a leather glove. The measurements covering size of glove shall be made by measuring front side or ball receiving side of glove. The tool or measuring tape shall be placed to contact the surface or feature of item being measured and follow all contours in the process. The glove shall not measure more than 1 from the tip of any one of the 4 fingers, through the ball pocket to the bottom edge or heel of glove. The glove shall not measure more than 7 /4 wide, measured from the inside seam at base of first finger, along base of other fingers, to the outside edge of little finger edge of glove. The space or area between the thumb and first finger, called crotch, may be filled with leather webbing or back stop. The webbing may be constructed of two plies of standard leather to close the crotch area entirely, or it may be constructed of a series of tunnels made of leather, or a series of panels of leather, or of lacing leather thongs. The webbing may not be constructed of wound or wrapped lacing to make a net type of trap. When webbing is made to cover entire crotch area, the webbing can be constructed so as to be flexible. When constructed of a series of sections, they must be joined together. These sections may not be so constructed to allow depression to be developed by curvatures in the section sides. The webbing shall be made to control the size of the crotch opening. The crotch opening shall measure not more than 4 1/ at the top, not more than 5 /4 deep, and shall be 1/ wide at its bottom. The opening of crotch shall not be more than 4 1/ at any point below its top. The webbing shall be secured at each side, and at top and bottom of crotch. The attachment to be made with leather lacing, these connections to be secured. If they stretch or become loose, they shall be adjusted to their proper condition. The glove can be of any weight.


15. (a) The pitchers glove shall be uniform in color, including all stitching, lacing and webbing. The pitchers glove may not be white or gray.


(b) No pitcher shall attach to his glove any foreign material of a color different from the glove.


Skills


Running- You need to be able to run, so that you can run around the bases before you get out.


Throwing- Throwing is essential to playing the game baseball because if you cant throw you cant get the ball to a certain spot (i.e. to first base, second base, etc.) before the opponent reaches that spot.


Catching- Catching is a very improtant skill in baseball because if you cant catch the ball you will never get the other team out so you will never end the inning.


Hitting- You need to be able to hit the ball because if you dont you will never have fun plaing because hitting the ball is the most fun. It is also the only way to score a run.


Keep fit, have fun, enjoy life, stay healthy


When I thought of this motto I was thinking what things you have to do to have a healthy life. If all of the things said in the motto are done right and you have fun doing them you will enjoy the time you have living. When you are not fit you will have health problems but if you are fit you will go through live without as much health problems as you would if not fit. Enjoying life is the most important part about life and if you dont enjoy your life you are not wanting to live, when people dont enjoy life they can do several dangerous things (i.e. kill themselves, run away etc.)


Equipment


Helmet- a helmet protects you from the ball which comes at you at very high speeds an without a helmet you could get severely injured. Cost $50.


Glove- although you can play baseball without a glove you can break your hand by just catching the ball once. A glove will comfort your hand and ensure that there are no instant broken hands. Cost depending on the type of glove the cost for a first baseman glove is $104., for a catchers glove it costs $11., and for a regular glove it would cost $4.


First baseman glove Fielders glove Catchers glove


Bats- a bat is the only way you are aloud to hit a ball. If you didnt have a bat you wouldnt be able to play the game. The cost for a wooden bat is $1. and an aluminium bat is $114..





Wooden bats Aluminium bat


Bases- without bases you wouldnt know where to pitche the ball or where to step for a hit, or even where the legal spot to have your foot while pitching. The cost for home plate is $15 and the pitchers mound is also $15. First, second, and third base are $85 for all three.








Home plate, Pitchers mound, first, second, and third


The balls- balls are the most important thing in baseball. If there was no baseballs the wouldnt be a game of this type. Balls cost $8 for one but if you buy a dozen they are $1.50 for all twelve


The total cost of all the items is $604.84 (tax included). Although you couldnt play baseball without all these items, you dont always have to buy them. Most often the league that you play in buys them for the team that you are on and the other teams in that league.Nutrition Plan


Breakfast is the most important meal of the day. In order to feel good throughout the day you must eat a well balanced breakfast. If I was a professional athlete I would eat a whole wheat bagel, and two strawberry yogurts (14 millilitres), and a medium sized glass of orange juice. I chose that type of breakfast because it has a large amount of complex carbohydrates. For lunch I would have a turkey sandwich on whole wheat bread, and an apple, and a glass of water. I choose that lunch because it includes a high source of protein and carbohydrates. Finally for supper I would eat a salad, lasagne, and some carrots and broccoli, as well as a glass of milk. I chose that to eat because it includes high protein foods, and high complex carbohydrate foods.


Carbohydrates are important to eat because they are the major source of energy. Protein is important because they provide amino acids and nitrogen for the repair of cells and muscles. Fat is important because it is an essential nutrient for every muscle in your body.





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