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1) Assemblies They are generally elected by popular vote, and hence are at least formally accountable to the citizenry.

) Authoritarian regimes Are those in which executive, legislative, and judicial powers are concentrated and in which the agents of government are not chosen in popular competitive elections.

) Bicameralism A common practice, but the purpose of the second chamber is to break up the process of policymaking and provide for longer and more cautious consideration of legislation.

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4) Bureaucracy Supposed to be politically and ideologically neutral agencies, yet they are influenced by dominant ideologies of the time and tend to have conservative propensities and institutional interests of their own.

5) Ceremonial Executive Principally ceremonial and symbolic officers with very occasional political powers which are living symbols of the state and nation and of their historical continuity.

6) Civil Service Those serving as ministers, junior ministers, and parliamentary secretaries in charge of the government departments (France).

7) Collective Executive For example the British executive whom for the most part is collective, cabinet makes important decisions and acts on the basis of group deliberation.

8) Confederal Systems The central govt. has authority over foreign affairs and defense, gut it has to depend on financial and other support from the states to implement this power.

) Constitutional Council Its chosen by the president of the republic and of the two legislative chambers as done in France, these three official plus the prime minister were given the power to submit legislation to the council for a rulings as to its conformity to the constitution.

10) Constitutional Regime Systems in which the powers of various government units are defined and limited by a written constitution, statutes, and custom.

11) Decision Rules Are the basic rules governing how decision are made, setting up agencies and offices with specific powers. Assigning them territorial and functional jurisdiction, and the like.

1) Democratic Presidential Regime Provides tow separate agencies of government separately elected by and deriving authority from the people-the executive and the legislative.

1) Effective Executive When political executives have genuine powers in the enactment and implementation of laws and regulations.

14) Federal Systems Where central and local units each have autonomy in particular spheres of public policy, yet these policy areas and powers are divided among central and local units in varying ways.

15) Higher Civil Service Provided by recruits from universities that go directly into higher civil service, they spend their lives as an elite corps, moving about from ministry to ministry, watching govt.’s come and go, and become increasingly important as policymakers as they rise into the top posts.

16) Individual Executive Such as the U.S. presidency which is an office with very substantial powers affecting all processes of govt. and although the president has advisors, they only advise instead of acting as collective decision makers.

17) Judicial Review Allows federal and state courts to rule that other parts of the govt. have exceeded their powers.

18) Mixed Parliamentary-Presidential Regime Offers a popular choice of the chief executive who has both substantive and ceremonial powers and can serve as a symbol of natural unity.

1) Ombudsman Official whose duty is to oversee how the courts and administrators observe and apply the laws. They may investigate claims of injury or of damage to any individual caused by the govt.

0) Parliamentary Regime Combines the executive and legislative authority in a single institution.

1. Political Executive They have many names and titles, and their duties and powers also vary enormously and tend to be formulators of public policy.

) Presidential-Parliamentary Regime Offers a popular choice of the chief executive who has both substantive and ceremonial powers and can serve as a symbol of natural unity.

) Policymaking Is the pivotal stage in the political process, the point at which bills become laws passed by parliaments, or edicts are issued by the ruling council of an authoritarian regime.

4) Senates Same as assemblies They are generally elected by popular vote, and hence are at least formally accountable to the citizenry.

5) Separation of Powers Preventing the injustices which might result from an unchecked executive or an unlimited legislature.

6) Unitary Systems Governments with power and authority at the center where regional and local units have those powers specifically delegated to them form the central govt., which may change or withdraw the powers by central decision.

Chapter 8 Key Terms

1) central government expenditures - a percentage of the GNP, and as proportions of total expenditures for defense, welfare, and other purposes

) central government revenues - revenue extracted by the central government

) direct taxes - directly levied on persons and corporations

4) distributive performance - the allocation by governmental agencies of various kinds of money, goods, services, honors, and opportunities to individuals and groups in the society

5) distributive policies - what money, goods, and services are distributed, and to whom?

6) extractive performance - political systems extract resources from their environments

7) extractive policies - money, goods, persons, and services - from the domestic and international environments

8) gross domestic product (GDP) - revenue created from all domestic services rendered

) gross national product (GNP) - the total value of goods and services produced by a country’s residents in a year

10) indirect taxes - such as sales and value added to taxes, excise taxes, and customs duties are levied on transactions or services, and their welfare distributive effects depend on who purchases the commodities and services

11) neotraditional political system - emphasize the system good of stability, the maintenance of an established order

1) OCED (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) - includes some 6 free-market economies, primarily in Europe and North America

1) opportunity cost - found not only in simple decisions about giving up education for better health care, but also in complicated decisions about investment for the future as opposed to consumption today

14) outputs - the kinds of actions governments take in order to accomplish their purposes

15) outcomes - results looked at in order to estimate the effectiveness of public policy

16) political performance - a government’s performance in the political realm

17) progressive taxes -the tax rates are higher for richer than for poorer citizens

18) public policies - a growth industry in the social sciences

1) regressive taxes - those who are less able to afford them share an equal burden with those who can

0) regulative performance - the exercise of control by a political system over the behavior of individuals and groups in the society

1) regulative policies - activities of modern political systems that have proliferated enormously over the last century or so

) symbolic performance - the political speeches, holidays, rites, public monuments and statues, and the like - used by governments to exhort citizens to desired forms of conduct, to provide inspiring examples, to edify the population, and to socialize the young

) taxation - the extraction of money or goods from members of a political system for governmental purposes, in consideration for which they receive no immediate or direct benefit

4) technocratic - authoritarian approach with the containment of popular pressure and protest by repressive means, and the management of investment and distribution in the interest of economic growth

5) trade-off - found not only in simple decisions about giving up education for better health care, but also in complicated decisions about investment for the future as opposed to consumption today

6) welfare state - programs of social insurance, health, public education, and the like

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