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Content


1. Abstract


. Introduction


. Method


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Ø Table of Data


4. Results


5. Discussion


6. Conclusion


Abstract


1 Sports students were tested over a period of two weeks to predict their maximal aerobic power. The test was carried out using the cycle ergo meter.


VOmax values for males and females were compared to determine whether there is a difference between sexes. Other physiological data collected during the test were Max H R, RER, minute ventilation and so forth. There is a significant difference (P value) in male and female VOmax values from the data collected. There is a XX% difference in mean results for male and Female cycling test, with male attaining X.XXX l/min compared to X.XXX l/min for women. Males have higher overall VOmax than females.


CONCLUSION


Introduction


Maximal Oxygen uptake (VOmax) is the single most popular determinant of measuring aerobic power.


DEFINE VOmax.


VOmax is used as the universal measurement of maximal Oxygen uptake. The importance of aerobic power is essential to sporting or training techniques. Therefore measurement and attainment of persons VOmax is a crucial part of the whole process.


VOmax maybe expressed in two forms, absolute and relative VO max. Relative will be expressed in millilitres per minute per Kg body weight (ml/min/kg) and absolute will be expressed in litres/min (l/min-1). In this investigation VOmax will be expressed in absolute form, because it will give a greater difference in overall results. Important criteria should be met to determine whether maximum Oxygen uptake has been achieved, these are “(1) a plateau in Oxygen uptake �work relationship. Defined as an increase in Oxygen uptake of less than ml/kg min or 5% with an increase in exercise intensity. () A final respiratory exchange value of 1.15 or above. () A final heart rate of within 10b/min of the age related maximum (which is 0 minus your age)”. (Donald, A, et al 187).


Several different protocols have been devised to predict a subject’s VOmax, “Some indirect methods that use graphs via heart rate and age to calculate estimated VO and other direct methods using treadmills (running, walking), cycle ergometry, bench stepping, swim bench ergometry, rowing and wheelchair exercises. (McArdle, W.D, et al 16). These forms of obtaining persons VOmax use highly technical equipment to produce the final data. Although these tests are fairly reliable forms of measuring oxygen uptake the form of test taken should closely relate to the kind of exercise or sport that the performer specialises in. this experiment will be looking at


THE TITLE


(Edward, T, Et al, 15) states that studies have indicated that there is a relationship between runnings VO max and cycling VO max. Pannier (17) states, “numerous studies have shown treadmill exercise to produce a greater maximum Oxygen consumption (VO max) than exercise on the bicycle ergometer”. Training methods would contribute to subject’s results on both protocols, whereby running is widely used in most sports training programs, cycling is considered more specific. “Performance on the bicycle may reflect specific muscular development with training in this form of exercise.” (Mcardle et al, 16) in the investigation the sample was taken from a number of sports students, resulting in a wide variety of sporting fields. This in turn will not give us an idea of the effects of training on the tests.


The investigation is to examine the male and female subjects in the group and trying to conclude whether there is a difference between VO max for males and females. There are several significant differences in male and female oxygen uptake during exercise. Numerous factors combine to reveal that females, on average have a lesser VO max than males. “The VO max for woman typically 15 to 0% below that of men” (McArdle, Et al, 16). This is a result of a number of physiological factors, which limit the female body to uptake Oxygen as efficiently as the male. One limitation is the body composition; women possess around 6% body fat whereas males only possess around 15%. Therefore several constraints are placed on the female body for example, women possess less fat free mass than males who have more muscle mass.


Social constraints on women have an indirect effect on the differences between the sexes. One possible explanation for this could be the activity levels of each gender, as stated by McArdle, et al (16) “the difference in the normal physical activity level of the “average” male compared to that of the “average” female”. The opportunity and participation in extra curricular activity of females is considerably less than that of males. But the statement would be incorrect if we assess the population that is around us.


I predict that there will be a difference between male and female VO max values, with the males obtaining higher values than females on average.


Method


1 undergraduate sports students from the University of Wales Institute Cardiff were analysed in a lecture, measuring VO max on the cycle ergo meter. Eight males and 45 female subjects were taken as a sample from the second year. We need to consider the mean - +, Standard deviation, age, stature and body mass.


Apparatus


Ø 4 Douglas bags.


Ø On-line oxygen analyser.


Ø Dry gas meter.


Ø Bicycle ergo meter.


Ø Weights of 1kg and 0.5kg for the bicycle.


Ø Mouthpiece.


Ø Nose clip.


Ø Headpiece.


Ø Stop watch.


Ø Heart rate monitor.


Ø Room temperature gauge and barometric pressure gauge.


Procedure


The subjects were asked to adjust the saddle height to a comfortable height and place the polar heart rate monitor around their body below the chest.


Room temperature and barometric pressure was recorded.


Ensure that the subject is fimiliar and comfortable with the collection equipment especially the mouth piece.


Evacuate 4 Douglas bags.


The subjects performed a minute incremental exercise test to exhaustion with expired air samples taken during the final minute each exercise stage.


Heart rate measures were also recorded during the final minute of each exercise stage.


Gas analysis procedure, minute ventilation CO O content conversion of ATPS � STPD, equation to establish VO.


Statistical Procedures


For obtaining the descriptive statistics and T-test results, which are found in the appendix, use of the statistical packages on Windows, which include Minitab and Microsoft Excel.


Results


Graph


Discussion





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