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Density of liquids and solids


Density is the amount of a substance contained within a specific area. Density is the mass divided by its volume and is expressed in units like grams per cubic centimeter or pounds per cubic foot. Density measured in units of g/ml is also known as specific gravity. Specific gravity is the density of a substance divided by the density of another substance that is used as a standard. The standard for solids and liquids is usually 4 degrees celcius or degrees farenheit. Because the density of pure water at 4degrees celcius is exactly one g/ml, the specific gravity of an object is simply its density divided by 1 g/ml.


Density can be measured in lots of ways. Solids are weighed to determine its mass then put in water to measure the volume. From that point its mass and volume are divided to give you the density of the solid. To find the mass of a liquid you must first measure the container that you are going to put the liquid in. Put the liquid in the container and find the measurement. Subtract the weight of the container and you will have the mass of the liquid. The volume of a liquid can be determined by something as simple as a measuring cup used for cooking. From that point you would use the same method for liquids as you would for solids.


Hydrometers are used to measure either the specific gravity or density of a liquid. This is based on the hydrostatic principle of the Greek mathematician and inventor Archimedes. The principle states that the weight loss of a body in a liquid equals the weight of the liquid displaced. This explains why a heavily loaded ship floats. Its total weight equals exactly the weight of the water that is displaces, and this weight exerts the buoyant force supporting the ship.


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Some hydrometers are enclosed in a glass tube fitted with rubber bulbs for drawing up the solution to be measured. The sealed instrument floats and has a bulblike bottom weighted down with lead or mercury. When immersed the graduated stem rises vertically to give a measurement.


An example in determining the density of a solid is to get a graduated cylinder and a rubber stopper and following this procedure


1. Get a rubber stopper and a graduated cylinder.


. Wash the stopper to remove dirt, dust, etc.


. Let it dry and then find its mass by using a triple beam balance.


4. Put enough water in the cylinder that is higher than the stopper.


5. Turn the cylinder at an angle when you drop stopper so it does not splash.


6. Record the volume of the stopper.


7. Now by using the density formula D=m/v you will get the density.


An example of finding the density of a liquid is to get a graduated cylinder and a triple beam balance.


1. Find the mass of the cylinder with the triple beam balance.


. Put somewhere around 0 to 5ml. Of water in the cylinder.


. Find mass of cylinder with the water in it.


4. To find the mass of the water you must subtract the weight of the cylinder from the weight you got with the water and the cylinder.


5. Now that you have the mass and the volume use the density formula D=m/v and that will give you the density.


6. You can also do this procedure with other liquids such as oil, corn syrup, etc.


The density of a substance can vary. This happens due to the different conditions they may be exposed to. As the temperature changes, substances expand or contract. When this occurs, the density will also change.


Oceanographers measure density of seawater by measuring the temperature and salinity of the water because density cannot be measured accurately at sea. These values are then used in a complex mathematical formula that calculates density. Salinity is the measurement of the mass of dissolved solids present in a given amount of water.


Density is also important in fluid mechanics and is the second most important principle of fluid statics. All large ships must be designed to float with or without heavy loads.





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