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¡§The control of an organisation¡¦s employees by managerial attempts to follow a behavioural methodology is doomed to failure in every instance¡¨.

I am to discuss the statement above and decide whether to agree or not to agree, throughout this paper I shall discuss the reasons behind my answer.

The manager¡¦s role in an organisation is to stimulate the workers and bring a response out of the workers that will get the plans and tasks completed. As all workers are different the stimulus required will be different. The manager has to know how to get the best from individuals. There are a number of theories that the manager can undertake.

I do not agree with the statement above, as there are a number of methods that can be used to control employees and get the best out of them. I may not agree with all the theories but they all have good points and bad points, managers should be using bits of all the theories.

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Maslow¡¦s Hierarchy of needs



1. The physiological needs. These include the needs we have for oxygen, water, vitamins and minerals. Also, there are the needs to be active, to rest, to sleep, to get rid of wastes (CO, sweat, urine, and feces), to avoid pain, and to have sex. Maslow believed, and research supports him, that these are in fact individual needs, and that a lack of, say, vitamin C, will lead to a very specific hunger for things which have in the past provided that vitamin C e.g. orange juice.

. The safety and security needs. Once the physiological needs are largely taken care of, this second layer needs to be taken care of. People will become increasingly interested in finding safe circumstances, stability, and protection. A need for structure, for order, some rules or regulations may start to develop. People become concerned, not with needs like hunger and thirst, but with their fears and anxieties. In the ordinary adult, this set of needs manifest themselves in the form of our urges to have a nice home, a car, job security, a good retirement plan, and so on.

. The love and belonging needs. When physiological needs and safety needs are, by and large, taken care of, we have to deal with the third layer. People begin to feel the need for friends, a partner, children, affectionate relationships in general, even a sense of community. Looked at negatively, people become increasing susceptible to loneliness and social anxieties. In our day-to-day life, we exhibit these needs in our desires to marry, have a family, be a part of a community, a part of a gang or a football club. It is also a part of what we look for in a career.

4. The esteem needs. Next, we begin to look for a little self-esteem. Maslow noted two versions of esteem needs, a lower one and a higher one. The lower one is the need for the respect of others, the need for status, fame, glory, recognition, attention, reputation, appreciation, dignity, and even dominance. The higher form involves the need for self-respect, including such feelings as confidence, competence, achievement, independence, and freedom. Note that this is the ¡§higher¡¨ form because, unlike the respect of others, once you have self-respect, it¡¦s a lot harder to lose.

5. Self-actualisation. The need for self-actualisation is the desire to become more and more what one is, to become everything that one is capable of becoming. People who have everything can maximize their potential.

Myself I believe that Maslow has the right idea when it comes to motivating people, if a manager was to implement Maslow¡¦s theory then his workforce would be much happier and therefore far more productive. This means that the statement in question cannot be true as Maslow¡¦s theory is not doomed to failure in my opinion. However it may not suit all workers.

Douglas McGregor -Theory X and Theory Y

Douglas McGregor in his book, The Human Side of Enterprise published in 160 has examined theories on behaviour of individuals at work, and he has formulated two models, which he calls Theory X and Theory Y.

Theory X

1. The average human being has an inherent dislike of work and will avoid it if he can.

. Because of their dislike for work, most people must be controlled and threatened before they will work hard enough.

. The average human prefers to be directed, dislikes responsibility, is unambiguous, and desires security above everything.

4. These assumptions lie behind most organizational principles today, and give rise both to tough management with punishments and tight controls, and soft management, which aims at harmony at work.

5. Both these are wrong because man needs more than financial rewards at work; he also needs some deeper higher order motivation - the opportunity to fulfil himself.

6. Theory X managers do not give their staff this opportunity so that the employees behave in the expected fashion.

Theory Y

1. The expenditure of physical and mental effort in work is as natural as play or rest.

. Control and punishment are not the only ways to make people work, man will direct himself if he is committed to the aims of the organization.

. If a job is satisfying, then the result will be commitment to the organization.

4. The average man learns, under proper conditions, not only to accept but to seek responsibility.

5. Imagination, creativity, and ingenuity can be used to solve work problems by a large number of employees.

6. Under the conditions of modern industrial life, the intellectual potentialities of the average man are only partially utilized.

7. Staff will contribute more to the organization if they are treated as responsible and valued employees.

Personally I think that Theory X is how a lot of people think when it comes to their job. I would say that Theory X could be used on low-skill jobs such as factory work, the reason I say this is because a job like that does not bring satisfaction due to repetition. Theory Y is would be best used on managers as they are usually far more committed to the company than shop floor workers.

Frederick Herzberg - Factor Hygiene and Motivation Theory

The first part of the motivation theory involves the hygiene theory and includes the job environment. The hygiene factors include

„X The company policies and its administration

„X The kind of supervision which people receive while on the job

„X Working conditions

„X Interpersonal relations

„X Salary

„X Status

„X Security

These factors do not lead to higher levels of motivation but without them there is dissatisfaction. The second part of Herzbergs motivation theory involves what people actually do on the job. The motivators are

„X Achievement,

„X Recognition,

„X Promotion and interest in the job.

Both these approaches must be done simultaneously. Treat workers as best you can so they have no dissatisfaction. Use people so they get achievement, recognition for achievement, interest, and responsibility and they can grow and advance in their work.

I believe that Herzberg has the right idea, people have to first be happy and then you can build on that. A happy workforce will produce far more than an unhappy or unrecognised workforce. People need to know that they are important, it is up to the management to show their workers that they are an important part of the organisation. Managers should ask its employees how they think their jobs could be improved. This will make employees feel wanted and that their views count for something. I feel that if employees are happy with the workplace (cantine, etc) then you will reduce absenteeism and it will boost morale around the workplace.

Rensis Likert - Management Systems and Styles

Dr. Rensis Likert has conducted much research on human behaviour within organizations. He has examined different types of organizations and leadership styles, and he believes that to achieve maximum profitability, good labour relations and high productivity, every organization must make optimum use of their human resources.

The form of the organisation, which will make greatest use of the human capacity, Likert contends, is;

¡§Highly effective work groups linked together in an overlapping pattern by other similarly effective groups.¡¨

Organisations at present have widely varying types of management style and

Likert has identified four main systems

The exploitive - authoritative system, where decisions are imposed on people, where motivation is characterised by threats, where high levels of management have great responsibilities but lower levels have virtually none, where there is very little communication and no teamwork.

The benevolent - authoritative system, where leadership is by a condescending form of master-servant trust, where motivation is mainly by rewards, where management feel responsibility but lower levels do not, where there is little communication and relatively little teamwork.

The consultative system, where leadership is by superiors who have substantial but not complete trust in their employees, where motivation is by rewards and some involvement, where a high proportion of personnel, especially those at the higher levels feel responsibility for achieving organisation goals, where there is some communication (both vertical and horizontal) and a moderate amount of teamwork.

The participative - group system, which is the best solution, where leadership is by superiors who have; complete confidence in their employees, where motivation is by economic rewards based on goals which have been set in participation, where personnel at all levels feel real responsibility for the organisations goals, where there is much communication, and a large amount of cooperative teamwork.

The participative solution is the best out of the four solutions because it has all employees involved as much as possible with increased communication between management and lower employees. This can give management a better idea of what employees want and how they are best motivated.

Control

It is important that managers have control of the workforce. Managers must be seen, as inspiring and motivating this will gain respect from workers, without respect the managers will not have control. In smaller organisations personal relationships can be built between staff. These relationships must be controlled in the workplace with professional relationships remaining. If managers cannot control their feelings in the workplace then they will lose the respect and control they previously had.

Evaluation

From the research I have conducted I disagree with the statement in question and I believe that behavioural methodology can work if the correct methods are carried out on the appropriate people. I have also taken into account my own experiences and how I am motivated. I believe that if management were to combine Rensis Linkert¡¦s participative group system, with Frederik Herzberg¡¦s Hygiene and Motivation theory, Douglas McGregor¡¦s theory X and Maslows Hierarchy of needs. They would have the aspects that affect everybody in the workplace whether they are management or machinist. I also strongly believe that a high percentage of people are largely motivated by money and a standard of life.

The statement ¡§The control of an organisation¡¦s employees by managerial attempts to follow a behavioural methodology is doomed to failure in every instance¡¨ is a very broad statement because there are so many possible scenarios and there are many behavioural methodologies of which I have mentioned a few. Managers who use behavioural methodology have been successful in the past and I believe that they will continue to do so for a long time. But managers must remember that everyone is different and with communication a happier more productive workforce can be achieved.



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