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Controversial Election of 1876

U.S. Grant was presently the Pres. from 1868-1876. His term was tainted by various scandals in the Navy, Indian Affairs, Treasury (whiskey ring), and land distribution.

Congress at this time also tried to give itself a 50% raise. Ppl did not trust Grant because of the RR scandal with stocks being given to avoid investigation by important figures. Grant testified on the behalf of those believe to be involved, which in turn made him look corrupted also.

Therefore.....

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Republicans chose R.B. Hayes as their nominee.

Democrats chose S.J. Tilden (Governor of NY)

Arguments from opposing sides against each candidate

Tilden-opposed the draft/ Republicans “waved the bloody shirt” to conjure images of the Civil War to make him look less American than Hayes.

Hayes- Democrats used the scandals recently present in the Rep. party against him. They also use d the fact that America should be moving on, away from the Civil War mentality.

Tilden-received the popular vote

Hayes- initially received more Electoral votes

Electoral votes were from Senators/state and Representatives based on state pop.

La, S.C., and FL hold the determining 1 Electoral votes, and it must be decided which party gets these votes since these states submitted sets of votes.

An Electoral Commission is put in place as a rd party to decide which side the votes go to.

David Davis resigns from the commission upon becoming a Democrat,and is replaced by Joseph Bradley(R) thereby giving the deciding vote to the Republican side (Hayes wins by 1 electoral vote-185 to 184).

In order to avoid catastrophe between passionate Democrats and Republicans, a deal is made 48 hrs. before the deadline.

The Wormley Compromise

-Made between the Nat’l Republicans and S. Democrats in a DC hotel

1) Remove Fed. (R) troops from the South (LA) “restoration of home rule”

this decreased hatred towards the Republicans

)Appoint 1 Southerner to Hayes’ cabinet- to ensure representation

)Control Federal Patronage- concerns who gets a job and why/how

4)Provide generous internal improvements-roads, bridges, etc

5)Provide Federal assistance for TX-Pacific RR

Francis T Nicholls-seen as a “redeemer” to the South; helped bring back power to S.

The Last West-Settlement and Problems

Fredrick Turner explains the uniqueness of the US by the “frontier thesis”- America had to overcome various challenges (diff. probs in diff. regions)

Problems with the Last West

Indians, scarcity of water, less consumers for farm products and harder to ship out, and less fencing materials

Solutions to some probs

Dig wells, use dry farming techniques, implement irrigation

Spread disease to indians, kill, etc Also, the depletion of the buffalo causes Indians to move and/or die

Last West settled in waves of progression

1) Mineral- “boomtowns” mining

Many lawless areas = vigilante justice

)Cattle Kingdom- Mexico to Canada

Needed more food due to pop. Explosion in East/ killing of buffalo and Indians

Needed lax land laws

A) 4 Major Cattle Drives 1865-1885

a) Sedalia trail

b) Chrisholm trail

c) Western trail

d) Midnight-Loving

)Farming Frontier

Rose and closed out the cattle era since there were more land laws, fences, etc



Dawes Act-provided for the breakup of tribes and land

14-rights of citizenship given to Indians (50 yrs after Blacks)

Major Agencies present at this time

A)The Dept. of War- (army)- helped police the reservations

B) The Dept. of the Interior-dealt with Indians on a daily basis

BIA-very corrupt at this time...for the most part still is

East-The Industrial Revolution

1st �during the Amer. Revolution

nd and ongoing-begins with the Civil War

American was “Industrially humming”

American was the 4th Industrial power and became 1st by 18

To create industry, you need

1) Access to raw materials

) Methods to turn raw materials into a useful and needed product (ingenuity)

) Cheap and plentiful labor (helped by immigration)

1860-180 400,000 patents �new innovations/inventions

Industry helped the N. Win the C.W. due to gun production

Revolution “radical change” from agriculture to industry

This was the “big business” period. There were no restrictions on opening enterprises.

Money defines the social status and creates the stratification of society.

Capitalism- “an economic system characterized be private ownership, by investments rather than state control, and by prices, production, and distribution of goods that are determined in a free market”

Capitalism here was a succeed or fail industry.

RRs are the largest businesses at this time.

5 Major Rail Roads

1) Union Pacific

) Northern Pacific-built privately by James Hill

) Southern Pacific

4) Atchison-Topeka-Santa Fe

5) Great Northern (state and Fed assistance)

Farmers-Problems and Grievances

-Sharecroppers/Farmers-Lived and died within a 6 mi radius of birthplace

-Isolated

-No local doctors

-High infant mortality rate

Enemies of the Farmer

1) Rail Roads-made the farmer dependent on them for crop movement-the farmer was usually taken advantage of

) Banks-held mortgages, money, loans, etc.

)Prices- of crops, goods needed-all uncontrolled by the farmer

O.H. Kelly-attempted to get farmers together

National Grange (1867)-helped farmers work together for better opportunities.

Ppl began electing officials who were supporters of the Grange since the big businesses were not listening.

Granger Laws- regulations on railroads prohibiting discriminatory rates

In 1877 the courts review the regulation concept

Interstate Commerce Clause (state law)

Fed. Gov. Has the power to regulate interstate commerce-

Munn v Illinois- states can act in absence of Fed. Gov.- small, temporary victory for farmers

In 1886 the courts reverse the ruling of Munn v Illinois

In Walbash v Illinois-Only the Fed. gov. can control interstate commerce



Organization of Labor

In 100, the ave. worker made $400/yr in unsafe working conditions, etc.

-------------------------------------- Attempts to Unionize---------------------------------------

1)The National Labor Union 1866-William Sylvest

a “union of unions” not individuals, of mixed occupations

Platform working hours

Began forming co-ops

Did not believe in the strike, only persuasion since the immigrant workers would easily replace them for lower wages

Later the Labor Reform Party

“Molly Mcguiers”- used violence to force the capitalist to give the workers more

)The Knights of Labor 186

individuals made up the Union

Did not believe in the strike

All occupations

Wanted 8 hr workday, no child labor, more paper money circulation

This group also tried to organize LA sugar cane farmers

Inflation of money would dilute the capitalist’s money and decrease the value of the dollar, making less debt for the farmer

T.V. Powderly became the head organizer for the Knights and began implementing the strike. The strike method failed and the Knights almost disappeared.

)Craft Union-skilled workers

1st to believe in using the strike-skilled laborers were harder to simply replace

American Federation of Labor 1881

Wantedbetter hrs., wages, working conditions.

Organized a May 1st strike overall if an 8 hr. Day was not put into place.

Haymarket Square tragedy-set back unionization due to a bomb-throwing incident at a rally.

184- the 1st Labor day

Black Internationals-a more radical group composed of mostly Europeans, Catholics and anarchists, who wanted to create a one-class society.

Highest Unionization % in the 140’s of 6% of the workforce

11-16%

18-14%...unionization showing decrease

Immigration, Philosophy, Education, Literature, Religion & Women’s Rights-Issues after the Civil War

American is mostly white, Protestant, Anglo-Saxon. (WASP)

1)Immigration- immigrants expected to conform.

Initially most immigrants came from N. Europe, and then gradually S. Europeans began immigrating more to the US.

N. Europe-mostly wealthy and educated

S. Europe-poor, uneducated, Catholic

Need immigrant labor to do jobs that we dont want to do

Exclusions

1875-no prostitutes and convicts

1880-no lunatics

181-Chinese excluded

181-exclude illiterates

S-E Europe-stayed where they landed (poor)

N-W Europe- moved inland further because they had more resources (money)

Ellis Island- NY-East

Angel Island-San Francisco-West

America allows more immigrants in than all other countries combined.

Today, we have more Latin American immigrants.

)American Philosophy(beliefs)

Belief in God and Biblical beliefs were shaken by the Industrial Revolution.

-Made ppl rethink the possibilities.

-Ppl had to reexamine what they thought to be truths since new innovations were making the impossible possible.

C. Darwin Published the Origin of the Species which examined the origin of man, This made ppl rethink what the Bible said about man being separate and unique from animals.

Ppl wondered if they needed to readjust their philosophy.

Positions taken on philosophy

1) Stick with Biblical beliefs- “Fundamentalists”

) Accept modern philosophy (Darwin etc)- “Modernists”

) Choose to believe in both-seek to merge the two

)Education

Before the civil war, it was the parents responsibility. Now, the government takes the most resp.

Poor ppl began wanting an education. This influenced the move towards free public education.

US placed last in 7 categories and 1st in none out of 1 test areas.

4th in world literacy

18-worst spellers in English language

Has less school days than other countries

Many Millionaires gave money to education to improve their image.

Legislation-important to education

1)Morel Land Grant Act-Fed. Gov. gave states land to use for educational institutions &

teaching facilities

subjects-Agriculture and Mechanical Arts (A & M schools)

)Hatch Act 1887

provided for experimental stations with A & M schools

became yr degree programs and then 4 yr institutions.

4)Literature

After the Civil War, local literature is popular.

Mark Twain (sam clemens)

More newspaper circulation; news gathering

Pulitzer and Hurst worked to provide better reporting.

Thomas Nast-cartoonist. Depicted famous images such as St. Nick, Rep. And Dem. Party animal symbols.

5)Religion

After the Civil War, Catholicism increased.

Catholic-largest single

Muslim

Hindu

Protestant-40%

Buddhist

Jewish

6)Women’s Rights

Even before Blacks, women wanted equality.

Susan B. Anthony-leader in the fight for WRs

Many opposing were actually women.

“Glass ceiling” concept

14th Amendment-no state shall discriminate

Equal Pay Act 16

Civil Rights Act 164-included all minorities

Medical Leave Act-for preg. Women and the husbands

Gender Act 14-no discrimination against any gender

Power Politics

Republican Party ( groups)

1) Stalwards- Roscoe Conkling

Believe politics was a game to win

Serious pursuit of power

)Mugwumps

Reformists-believed in civil service gov.

)Half-breeds

Talk like mugwumps; act like stalwards once in power

Ppl wanted more money, so they wanted to inflate coin currency.

Coinage Act 187-“crime of ‘7”- omitted silver from coins

Bland-Allison Act- didnt please either side

Too much to inflationists and too little for creditors

Allowed for freer coinage of silver

1880-James Garfield Pres. (half breed) (R)

Chester Arthur V.P. (stalward)-was known to be corrupt

Garfield is shot by Charles Guito (stalward) 4 mos after the inauguration b/c he wants a stalward to be Pres.

Chester Arthur completely changes and is no longer involved in shady business. Therefore, disappointing his stalward comrades. He commits political suicide by changing his previously corrupt ways (stalwards now despise him while others don’t trust him). He detaches himself from Roscoe Conkling (stalward) in order to perhaps prove himself above machine politics.

188-1st Nat’l Civil Service Act (Pendleton Law)

get a job based on talent not who you know in politics

hardmoney-directly given and limited

Softmoney-indirectly given to organizations for use towards a certain politician (uses PAC’s to get money-Political Action Committees)



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