A Feminist Idea in "The Things They Carried"

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Kate Lianna Nolan


4-17-0


Eng. 101


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A Feminist Idea


The Things They Carried


Tim O’Brien


Although there aren’t many female characters in Tim O’Briens’ The Things They Carried, there is still a feminist idea present in the novel. The idea present is that women served just as an important role as men in the Vietnam War, although it was very different. The women were the most important things for men at war, serving as inspiration and comfort. Often times, women were idolized and held to high esteem even without their knowledge. In some cases however, the women did not act as they were thought to. This came to a surprise and even heartbreak to some unfortunate men at war.


The idea of a woman waiting for you back home was the best thing for a man at war. This woman served as the reason to fight and a comfort because they had to. The men had pictures and souvenirs of the women they loved and carried with them. There are examples of this in the novel, one being Henry Dobbins. Henry had a girlfriend back home waiting for him, just like many other men. In order to remind himself of this, he carried with him a pair of her pantyhose. Often times when Henry had to go out on an ambush or when he went to sleep, he would wrap the pantyhose around his neck and smell them for good luck. Henry and the other men of his company recognized that the pantyhose had some sort of magic to them. This was seen when Henry tripped a Bouncing Betty and got caught in a harsh firefight, but had his pantyhose around his neck and was not injured at all.


Along with good luck charms like Henry’s pantyhose, the men carried pictures, and held on to them for dear life. Often times the men carried them in plastic so that the elements wouldn’t fade, warp, or ruin them. The men would do anything to keep the picture of their girl back at home. One vivid example from the book, is the day that Kiowa died. One night in a mud field, Kiowa and a young soldier were sitting and talking when the soldier took out a protected picture of his girl for Kiowa to see. The young soldier turned on his flashlight and a second later they were ambushed. During the firefight Kiowa was injured and sunk far into the mud, dying, but the most important thing to the young soldier was getting his picture of his girl back. While the rest of the platoon searched the muddy waters for Kiowa’s body, he searched for his picture, because it was the only picture he had and it’s what kept him going.


In some instances, the women didn’t even realize that they served such an awesome purpose in the war. These women just went about their daily lives, seeming to not even think twice about the war or dare to mention it in their letters they may write to a soldier they may know. For many soldiers though, these letters meant so much, or sometimes everything to them. Lieutenant Jimmy Cross was one of these soldiers and the woman who was his unknowing inspiration was Martha. Martha was a girl Jimmy knew from college, and whom he had fallen in love with. When Jimmy went to war, this love was only amplified. The letters, pictures, and a souvenir pebble that Martha had sent over seemed to serve as everything for the Lt. Jimmy would spend every night in his foxhole analyzing the letters over and over, trying to find a hidden romantic meaning in them, when in all reality he knew there was none. He would look at the pictures wondering whom had taken them, and feeling somewhat jealous of those people. He would take the pebble Martha had sent him from the Jersey shore and place it in his mouth, tasting the salt and imagining he was on the shore with her right at that very moment. Every thing that Jimmy did wasn’t for himself or for his men or for the war, it was for Martha and the possibility of she and him being together in the future. However, Martha never knew that she served such a purpose for Jimmy. She wrote him letters, and gave him pictures, and sent him a pebble for a good luck, but never intended to be Jimmy’s romantic interest, or his girl waiting at home for him. Even Jimmy had admitted to himself that none of her letters had a romantic idea to them or that the pebble was anything more than a good luck charm. Nevertheless, Martha was to Lt. Cross what many other women were to other soldiers during the Vietnam war an inspiration and a comfort even without them being present and sometimes even without their knowledge.


In some instances, the women at home seemed to not fulfill their role as a comfort for the men at war, and this came as a real shock for many of the men at war. The novel gives two examples of this in Curt Lemon’s sister and Mark Fossie’s girlfriend Mary Anne.


Curt Lemon and Rat Kiley were in the same platoon and became best friends. One afternoon, Curt was killed and Rat was left without a best friend and no one to comfort him. For this , Rat turned to Lemon’s sister. After Lemon’s death, Rat sat down and wrote a nice letter to Lemon’s sister about how great a guy Lemon was, being a jokester and how Rat had loved him and how they were best friends. Rat even says that he’ll look her up when the war’s over. So what happens? Rat mails the letter. He waits two months. The dumb cooze never writes back.(68). This comes as a surprise to all of the men, especially Rat, because this is not how a woman was supposed to act. All of the men expected Lemon’s sister to act like all of the other women they had idolized and write back to Rat, to be his comfort and support. It is almost as if the men wanted to women to realize that they were adored and should accept the fact and intentionally do things to try and comfort their soldier. When this didn’t happen, the men at war were devastated.


A similar situation happened between Mark Fossie and his long time girlfriend Mary Anne. Mary Anne was the typical innocent girl at home for Mark and when he decided to bring her to the war, everything changed. Mark brought her their to serve as a comfort still, but now that Mary Anne was put in the war zone she became a part of it and lost her innocence just like others did. Instead of staying in her room, wearing culottes and being by Mark’s side, she decided to go out on ambushes and help with injured soldiers. When Mary Anne started to not act as the woman Mark wanted her to be and expected her to be, he was surprised and even disappointed and heartbroken. Mark had his hopes up that bringing Mary Anne would inspire him and bring him even more joy than a picture or a letter could. However, Mary Anne was not the girl at home any more, she was part of Vietnam, and this reality hurt Mark and surprised other men, who wanted their women to be constantly there for them.


Women weren’t thought of as being important in war. In many peoples’ minds women couldn’t fight, kill, or last long in the jungle. This may have been true for many women, but as this novel shows, without women, all of the wars of the past would have been drastically different. Women served a very different purpose in the war, they served as hope and support for troops. Without his girl’s pantyhose Henry Dobbins would be very different, maybe even hopeless and depressed. Without a salty pebble Lt. Cross may not have had the strength to lead his platoon. Although there were some women who didn’t fit the mold of a soldier’s girl at home, many of the women during the Vietnam War fulfilled their role as an inspiration and a comfort to the men at war.





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Julius Caesar - BRUTUS Characterization

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Brutus is “a noble man” who puts the good of Rome ahead of himself or anyone else, and this is why Caesar has to die. This personality trait makes the suspense in the play much more effective, because you do not know if something could change in his mind to make him realize that maybe his reason isn’t a good enough reason to kill a good friend. Though other characters may make it seem that they are acting noble about killing Caesar, you know that they are not killing him for the same reasons Brutus is. So even though Brutus’s reason for killing Caesar may seem a little more extreme than everyone else’s, it is really the most noble out of all of them.


In Scene of Act I, there are a few good examples of why Brutus is thought of as putting the good of Rome ahead of himself and others. One good example is in Lines 46 and 47 where it basically says that Brutus does not show his love to fellow man as he does to his country. Then in Lines 85 through 8, it is explained how Brutus looks at honor and death. He says that he would rather have honor than fear death.


In Scene 1 of Act II is where two more good examples of Brutus’s personality can be found and how he is more of a noble person than others. Lines 61 through 6 importantly show that even though Brutus was having trouble thinking about betraying Caesar, he still kills Caesar in the end. This is very important to proving Brutus’s personality because it just backs-up how no matter what, the good of Rome will always come before all else. Brutus demonstrates how noble he really is in Lines 165-174, where everyone feels like they are being barbaric with what they are doing to Caesar, and he assures them all that what all of them are doing is truly the right thing to do.


In Scene 1 of Act III there are a few good reasons why Brutus should be looked at as a very noble and proud man. Line 18 is just a brief quote that shows that Brutus is very proud to be a Roman, and he truly respects his fellow Romans. Line 170 shows us once again that everything Brutus does is all for the general good of Rome, and that even if it is something that is not the right thing to do, it just shows that he may jeopardize himself for the greater-good of his country.


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Brutus is a very honorable man who looks past himself and looks straight to his country and what needs to be done for it. He honestly believes that the reason he killed Caesar is truly a good reason, and that all the others who say that they are doing it for personal reasons are savages. So today, people may look at Brutus and think that the honor or pride for your country is not a good enough reason to kill someone, but after reading all of these quotes, you almost start to believe that Caesar’s death was justified.


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Teachers I have known

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I have been in school for almost twelve years now and I know what makes a good teacher and what makes a bad teacher. Teachers have it tough if they do not know what they are doing. Teachers in today’s world are constantly being tested to see if they are teaching what they are supposed to teach. Knowing all they need to know for the subject they teach is not what makes a good teacher. A good teacher should challenge her students, love to teach, and be involved in extracurricular activities.


I do not learn well in class if I am not challenged. A good teacher should teach me things that make me think, instead of reviewing the same information one hundred times. The teacher should also understand what he or she is teaching so the students and teacher can challenge each other. If a student and teacher challenge each other the students benefit. There are so many new things out there to help students learn more efficiently and a great educator should be constantly researching new ways of teaching, keeping the subject interesting for the teacher as well as the student.


An educator should find joy in teaching and not teach because of other reasons. Throughout the years I have had teachers who wanted to get out of school from the moment they walked in the building that morning. If a teacher does not want to teach then they should find a new profession. If a teacher does not want to be at school teaching, her students will take advantage of her. Her students will get into a bad routine and continue to waste class time. For example, it is not a good idea for a teacher to speak to her students about her love life. In this case the teacher taught virtually nothing all year and her students took advantage of the situation by talking and not learning when she did try to teach.


Finally, I think that a good teacher should enjoy teaching so much that they would stay after school hours to become involved in after school activities. A good educator would do this by being a coach or being the director of the school plays. This would help the teacher show that he or she cares about his or her students. This would let me know, as a student, that that teacher cares about me and in turn know when something is wrong in my life. When I am hurt or upset and need to go to an adult at school I always choose a good teacher over a counselor. If I went to a teacher it would most likely be one of my coaches or play directors rather than a teacher who leaves as soon as school gets out. If a teacher cares enough to stay after school then I know that that teacher cares about me.


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I have been in school for twelve years now and I know what makes a good teacher. I have had horrible teachers who were only in it for the money, even though the pay is not very good. I have also had great teachers, who have changed my life for the better and who have taught me a great deal of what I know today. When I get out of college I am planning to be a teacher and I am so thankful to have good and bad teachers because in the end all of them will help me to become a better teacher.





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Polluting Our Future:Chemical Pollution in the U.S. that AffectsChild Development and Learning

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U.S. companies have to report the amount of chemicals that they use and disperse into the environment to the Environmental Protection Agency. In 18 1. billion pounds of chemicals were released into the air and water. All of these chemicals can potentially affect the way a child’s brain or body develops. A staggering 5% of all toxic chemicals reported are known or suspected developmental or neurological toxins.


The states with the highest emissions of developmental or neurological toxins are Louisiana and Texas. The industry which accounts for the largest percentage of these toxins is the chemical manufacturing industry. The other industries that are major contributors are the U.S. Paper, metal, and plastic manufacturers. An industry of major concern is the printing industry. The printing industry is usually less industrial in nature and is located in closer proximity to residential areas. This industry may have the most adverse affect on children.


There has been an increase over the years in physical and mental problems with children such as an increase in very low birth weights, an increase in premature births, a doubling of atrial septal defect, increase in obstructive genitor-urinary defects, increase in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and a doubling of the incidence of autism. Scientists believe that developmental and neurological toxins could be responsible for these drastic increases.


It is estimated that 17% of U.S. children suffer from developmental, learning, or behavioral disabilities. It is believed that exposure to known toxic substances is responsible for approximately % of these disabilities. When you calculate this statistic is accounts for approximately 60,000 U.S. children who suffer from developmental or neurological deficits as a result of exposure to toxins.


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This study is based on what we currently know about developmental and neurological toxins. Most of the commercially used chemicals, about 80,000, have never been tested as to there affect on development. Additionally, a significant percentage of developmental and neurological defects were blamed on environmental factors. It is not known what role toxins may play in the changing of the environmental factors. This suggest that the real impacts of these pollutants are much more significant than we realize.


The study suggest that as a nation we are focused on cancer causing substances and we have neglected to address solutions for the health risk associated with developmental and neurological toxins. It is believed that new and existing chemicals should be tested, product labels should explain potential risks, new standards should be implemented for pollution reporting more control of toxic chemicals, and closer attention paid to exposure and disease monitoring.





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My Computer Search

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My Computer Search


When I go to college I will need a good, fast computer that can do it all. I would look for two different types of computers, a notebook or a desktop, from either Dell or Gateway. From Dell I would get the Inspiron 650 Notebook. It comes with an Intel Pentium 4 Processor with .0GHz and 15.0 XGA. For memory it has 56MB 1 DIMM. The Hard Drive is a 0GB Ultra ATA Hard Drive. The computers modem is an Internal 56K v. Capable Modem. Also it comes with an internal CD/DVD ROM. The computer operates in Microsoft Windows XP Home Edition and also comes with Word Perfect Productively Pack with Quicken New User Edition. Some peripherals include a free Epson C4 printer, a Lithium-Ion Battery, a Norton Anti-virus 00, and an integrated Floppy Drive. The computer also comes with a 1 year limited warranty plus 1-year mail-in service. The cost for this computer is $1,.00.


My other Dell choice would be a Dell Dimension 4500 Desktop. It comes standard with a .4GHz Intel Pentium 4 Processor and 51MB DDR SDRAM for memory. The computers hard drive is n 80GB Ultra ATA/ 100 Hard Drive. The monitor is 1 inches (across) and it has a new 64MB DDR NVIDIA GeForce4 MX Graphics Card with a TV-out. It also comes with an internal 16x Max CD/DVD ROM Drive and Sound Blaster Live sound card with Harman Kardon HK-5 Speakers with a subwoofer. The modem is a 56K PCI Telephony Modem and it has a 10/ 100 PCI Fast Ethernet NCI. The computer runs in Microsoft Windows XP Home Edition and it includes Microsoft Works Suit 00, Dell Picture Studio, Image Expert Standard, and Dell Jukebox powered by Music Match. Some peripherals are a free Epson C4 printer, a .5-inch floppy drive, and a Norton Anti-virus 00. Also, it has a Dell Quietkey Keyboard and a Dell -button scroll mouse. The computer comes with a -year limited warranty plus -year At-Home Service and 6 months America Online Membership. This computer cost $1,658.00.


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There are advantages and disadvantages to owning each computer. If I pick the notebook it would be easy to carry around and I could take it to class (if necessary) and hook it up almost anywhere, and it would have more memory than the desktop. But I would have as much processor speed or as much hard drive space as the desktop. If I bought the desktop I would have a better graphics card, a larger screen size, better sound, and more storage space than the notebook. The bad thing about having a desktop though would be it’s only gonna be on my desktop. But of the two computers I would have to choose the Dell Dimension 4500 Desktop computer because it more memory, a faster processor, and a better graphics card.





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Last Chapter

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The Last Chapter


I don’t know about you, but to me Zeno is the most selfish, ignorant, untruthful man that anyone ever written about. However, the last chapter changed the whole meaning of the book. There was a good connection between the last chapter and the whole book itself. Throughout the whole book, Zeno has been trying to find a woman, who he belongs with. Looking for the right profession. Trying to forget all the mistakes that he has done in the past. But after he finished his memoirs, Zeno starts thinking of a way to leave the past, and “banish the hateful present”. Unfortunately, that was not possible for him. His doctor made him realize that he has the same disease as “Sophocles drew up long ago for poor Oedipus”. The last chapter, made the whole book worth reading. That last part of the book, when he was with the soldiers, was the climax of the whole story. That’s when Zeno actually faced a real problem, which he could not get out of.


“Confessions of Zeno” would not be a good book if it weren’t for the description of life as an incurable disease. “Life is neither good nor bad; it is original.” (p.1) When Zeno said that life was original; he did not know what he was talking about. He just mentioned it, just to sound intelligent. After his analysis, however, he began to compare life with a disease.


“Life is a little like disease, with its crises and periods of quiescence, its daily improvements and setbacks. But unlike other diseases life is always mortal. It admits of no cure. It would be like trying to stop up the holes in our body, thinking them to be wounds. We should die of suffocation almost before we were cured.”


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No matter how “smart” he sounded when talking to Guido, the second idea is incomparable.


In the beginning of the last chapter, Zeno was denying of even having the disease. But after bringing his mind back to childhood, he began to remember events that he believed gave birth to this disease. He remembered the time that he was jealous of his brother for sitting home, while he had to attend school. He remembered the time that Catina called him a “little Jew” for trying to get a piece of sugar from his brother. And the most memorable moment was when he was playing with marbles and accidentally threw everything off the table, while trying to get up to invite his mother to join the game. His father of coarse punished him for it, and that’s when he began to have hate toward his father. Of coarse he wasn’t actually violent, but psychological hate definitely existed.


By Zeno realizing his problem, every thought, or action that was made before that, suddenly made sense. The reason why he couldn’t let Augusta go was because she was kind and caring like his mother. The reason why he had mistresses was because they were beautiful like his mother. When reading the last chapter, Zeno doesn’t seem like the same person. He totally has a different attitude toward people. He becomes more polite, understanding and faithful, after realizing that he was cured. For some reason I believe that him finding out his disease made him much wiser. Now, not only he is a better person, but also he is smart in life.


He showed how much he cared for his family when the soldiers took him. They asked him where he was heading to, he simply answered that he was supposed to meet his wife for some caffelatte. Zeno could not think of anything else but his wife that was waiting for him there. The only time that he actually calmed himself down was when he was sure that his family was safe. That’s when he realized that he does not hate the life that he leads.


Lastly, it is certain that the book “Confessions of Zeno” would not be readable if it weren’t linked with the last chapter. Zeno’s change of attitude showed that writing his memoirs was not useless and had a great effect on the main character. Through his whole journey in life he did not suspect that the origin of his problem was from the disease that “poor Oedipus” had. After realizing his problem, he took some time to recover, and fortunately he was successful. After his success he began looking at life at a totally different point of view. He believed life to be an incurable disease, that we should not try to get rid of, but we should try as hard as we can to make each day better. I believe that it is a much better understanding of life, than the quote that he motioned before. In each book, the main character grows and becomes a smarter person. We can definitely say that Zeno evolved into a good man. Too bad he did not see the shrink earlier, maybe things in his life would go differently for him.





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The Sun Also Rises

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The Sun Also Rises by Ernest Hemingway


For my book log presentation, I chose to read the book The Sun Also Rises by Ernest Hemingway. This book is considered a classic because of Hemingway’s skill in articulating his story with such expertise and yet without an excessive amount of words. The story is about a group of post- war expatriates who are considered by future generations as the “lost generation.” After WWI, these wandering people try desperately to find a niche in their war-torn world where they can settle down and live out their lives in peace. But this is not to be. They constantly travel form country to country, seeking happiness in worldly things like alcohol, sex, excessive money spending, and much time wasting watching bullfights and lounging on beaches. Even with all these entertaining aspects of the world to occupy them, this generation is truly lost, lacking morals and any sense of self.


I chose to do my presentation with a poster-board again because I felt like I can express myself the best through art. Also, the book has many colorful and rich pictures described in it, and much of its themes can be delightfully represented through pictures. For example, in the book, Hemingway seems to delight in articulating exact and beautiful pictures of sunny dales and bustling Parisian sidewalk cafes with short, sweet, yet expressive words. He even uses real-life Parisian cafes in his story and describes their exact locations in relation to streets and other places. Some critics even say that The Sun Also Rises could be used as a tourist’s guide to Paris. To portray Hemingway’s amazing literary skills, I drew a scene of a little sidewalk caf� in Paris as I visualized it in my head while reading the book.


One main theme in the book is the character’s excessive drinking. The drinking in itself is not altogether vital as a theme, but the fact that the characters are drinking to forget and stew their problems and guilt in a constant state of drunkenness. I illustrated this aspect with sever different wine bottles and a little blue martini. Another important feature of the book is the drastic changes in a woman’s role in society pre-war world and post-war world. After the world war, women’s skirts rose up from the floor to above their knees. They were no longer required to be conservative, and the daring women even smoked in public. The inflexible standard of male dominion was greatly reduced. In this way, the woman’s power in the society was greatly altered. I illustrated this with a moan wearing the latest fashions and smoking. This could also represent the decline in morality in the post-war generation. In the book, the main female character goes about sleeping with whomever she pleases and never attaining true fulfillment or happiness, while the men humor her and are constantly drunk. Hemingway’s passion for bullfighting shows up noticeably in the book �the characters spend weeks gawking over gory bullfights that are described in such detail that only a true lover of bullfighting can appreciate them fully. I’m sure the bullfights have some sort of symbolic meaning in the story, but the best idea that I can come up with is the image of a little bullfighter facing-off against seemingly impossible odds and managing to slip away from a head-on confrontation, just as the characters face heavy moral and societal obstacles and never meet them head on, but merely drink the thought of them away. To show this, I simply drew a bullfighter fighting a bull. I the background of my poster-board is what is supposed to be a train but looks more like a smoking bart. This “train” represents the characters’ constant traveling from one idyllic place to another, seeking solace in noisy festivities and always drinking, lost and astray as they literally search for themselves in a world where nothing has meaning anymore. Their identities were lost in the raging tumult of war and while that war is still on their minds, they will never be able to find peace and truth. I illustrated this with a hovering image of an abandoned battlefield in the background, always haunting their minds and never giving them a moment’s rest.


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Thomas Hobbes Vs. John Locke's human nature

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Locke vs. Hobbes


“We hold these truths to be self-evident That all men are created equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights; that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness…” So begins the Declaration of Independence, as articulated by Thomas Jefferson. One needs only do a cursory reading of both this document and political philosopher John Locke’s Two Treatises on Civil Government to see the profound effect Locke’s ideas of man’s nature, his right to form his own government, and his right to rebel had on the men who founded the American republic. Britain, in the span of only forty or so years, produced two men, John Locke and Thomas Hobbes, who had very different views of man. These two philosophers represent two disparate perspectives of government and liberty Hobbes an authoritarian regime with limits on man’s rights and freedoms; Locke representative governance with careful protection of the rights that humans, as living creatures, had before government existed and could not be taken away.


Having two such differing views begs the question which view is the correct one? Is man better off being ruled by a strong sovereign because he can not be trusted to rule himself, or does he possess the ability to reason and to rule himself? If government goes against the will of the people, does man have the right to rebel and set up a new government? It was the fundamental and important differences in their views on man’s state of nature, the reasons for which we can find in the conditions in which these two men lived, and of the role of government in society that led Thomas Hobbes and John Locke to different conclusions on the right to rebel and to dissolve the government.


To understand why Locke and Hobbes felt the way they did about human nature, one must take into account the historical periods in which they lived. The forty years that separated them were significant. Hobbes was a product of a time marked by civil strife and tremendous amounts of disorder. He lived to see the beheading of the King, the English Civil War, and the Protestant Revolution. Hobbes saw this period of chaos and anarchy as counterproductive to the advancement of society. This led him to believe that only a strong state under a strong, authoritative ruler could prevent anarchy and provide security.


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In contrast to the period of upheaval that Hobbes lived through was the time of John Locke. By the time Locke emerged, the English Civil War was over. Instead of writing in defense of the old regime of monarchical government, as Hobbes did, Locke focused his energies instead towards representative government. His writings were based upon a defense of the 1688 Glorious Revolution that bloodlessly overthrew the kind and established a new and better form of government.


The time periods they lived in, therefore, colored the way both Hobbes and Locke viewed the world. Hobbes’s view of man is pessimistic. Beginning his Leviathan with a discussion of the state of nature of man, Hobbes concludes that all men are created equal in “faculties of the body and mind.” However, this equality leads men to misery and to war because we all desire the same things. War “consists not in actual fighting, but in the known disposition thereto, during all the time there is no assurance to the contrary”. In this state there can be no industry, arts, letters, or any form of what we would generally term to be civilization. This leads Hobbes to the conclusion that the life of man is “solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short” in the state of nature.


To escape this brutal, solitary, combative, and competitive existence, men compose governments. Government is formed, according to Hobbes, because of man’s “fear of death, desire of such things as are necessary to commodious living, a hope by their industry to obtain them.” To be sure the desire for glory and domination is kept in check, the sovereign must be given all of the power.


John Locke viewed man’s state of nature through a rosier tinted glass than Hobbes. Locke’s view is optimistic and he holds that man in his state of nature is not too unlike man in society. Like Hobbes, Locke starts his discussion of government with an explanation of the condition of man’s nature. As Hobbes does, he concludes that men are all constituted as equal. However, Locke believes that man, because of his ability to reason, knows what is right and wrong, and therefore obeys natural laws even in the primitive state of nature. The state of nature is not, however, a state of license and there are rules founded in man’s innate ability to reason. For Locke, the reason men leave this state of “perfect freedom to order their action” is because there are deficient in the state of nature. In the state of nature, transgressions are punished by the injured party. However, men may be overcome by passion and rage, or biased by their own interests, or may even not be strong enough to punish the transgression. Therefore, men enter into a government designed to protect property through an impartial judiciary with predictable laws. The end of government above all things, to Locke, is for the “preservation of their property.” Property is so highly prized by Locke that he encompasses in his definition of property, “their lives, liberty, and estates;” basically everything of importance.


Because of his more favorable view of man, Locke also has a very different view of government from Hobbes. Locke believes that society is a contract, but that government is a form of trust. The legislators are the trustee who administer to the trust. The trust is the people; the legislature is a servant of the people. The government, according to Locke, has no rights. Only the people have rights. There is no contract, and thus the state has no rights against the people.


Hobbes, instead, believes in a social contract between subject and subject. The sovereign is not included in the contract; instead, he is created by the contract. Since the people have created the sovereign, they cannot complain about his actions, nor can the sovereign act illegally. The sovereign determines what is just and unjust. In short, he is the law. The sovereign has no duties toward the governed. Instead, the people must show unqualified obedience because deviance weakens the state. Certainly, when writing this, Hobbes was thinking of the bloody uprisings against authority that punctuated his life.


Also influenced by history, Locke had extreme distasted for the depositum that marked his life. This leads to the conclusion that there are definite limits on the powers of the government. These limits include the fact that laws must apply equally to all people, that the government cannot make laws or act in ways that are arbitrary or oppressive, that the legislature is barred from raising taxes without consent of the governed, and finally that government may not transfer law making to anyone else.


Central to Locke’s beliefs in the power of the people and the fact that the legislature obtains its power from the consent of the governed is the right to rebel, something Hobbes finds most distasteful. To Hobbes, rebellion is a return to the chaos and brutality of the state of nature. It is an end to civilization and to society. To Locke, the rights to rebel and to dissolve the trust if the rights of the people are violated are tantamount in importance. If the chief executive over rides the will of the people or acts arbitrarily, he becomes an outcast and a rebel against the law. The ruler, in that case, is to be treated as an aggressor, like in war.


Locke’s beliefs in the right to rebel are based upon his theories of man’s nature. His strong beliefs in the right to resistance find their grounds in his strong belief in the inalienable rights of man of personal liberty, consent, and freedom to acquire and enjoy property and his ability to reason. For Locke, governments can only be legitimate if their power is derive from the consent of the people it is set up to govern. If the government fails to do this or takes away liberty, it is the right of the people to abolish the government. Because their reason, the people can then be trusted to form a new, better government, created to protect their liberty, safety, and happiness as they see fit.


Locke tempers this by stating that the people only have a right to rebel if unjust and unlawful force is used and it is the majority of people who are being oppressed. In defense of his radical ideas, Locke concludes that men will revolt anyway in any sort of government if they are in a miserable state, but that they will not dissolve their government for an every small mismanagement of affairs. The Hobbesian view of the right to resist is that only when the sanctity of human life is being violated do men have a right to revolt. Otherwise, to dissolve the government is to destroy society.








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Levi Strauss Case Analysis

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Strategic Management Paper on Levi Strauss


I. History/Background


Levi-Strauss and Company is one of the world’s most famous manufacturers of denim clothing. It was founded in 185 by Levi-Strauss a Bavarian immigrant, originally the company was set up as a dry goods store, in just over twenty years this small business grew in to a large prosperous store house (Levi Strauss, 001)


In 187 Strauss was in contact with Jacob Davis regarding the new process of attaching copper rivets to the pockets men’s pants. The patent for the copper riveted denim pant is agreed and confirmed in187, the first jean waist overalls become available (Levi Strauss, 001) .


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In 10 Levi Strauss died, the company was taken over by his nephews. Despite the San Francisco earthquake of 105 Levi Strauss and Company continue to manufacture denim pants, new temporary headquarters are moved into and wages for staff are continued. In 11 son of Jacob Davis, Simon invented the Koveralls, these were the first type of leisure and work wear for children (Levi Strauss, 001) .


In 115 Levi Strauss and Company received the highest award for their waist overalls at the Panama Pacific International Exposition in San Francisco. Levi Strauss and Company began to sell their products nationally in 10, also invented during this time was the corduroy pants (Levi Strauss, 001).


In 18, Levis Strauss and Company registered the name Levis® as a trading and brand name trademark. Today, the Levis® trademark is one of the most recognized in the world and is registered in more than 160 countries. In 1 the great depression hit the world, with Wall Street and the Stock Market crash Levi Strauss puts its staff on a short day week, some members of staff are put into no manufacturing work, such as laying the hardwood floors that are still seen in the head office today (Levi Strauss, 001).


During this time Levi Strauss adopt the cowboy image as its representative for cornering the market on denim jeans, along with this introduction of the cowboy came the new Levi 501 Jeans (waist overalls). In 15 Levi Strauss began to cater for both sexes, and released Lady Levis, the first blue jean for ladies (Levi Strauss, 001).


In the 140’s Levis become internationally known as G.I’s wear their jeans and shirts overseas, also during this time African American workers in the Californian plants begin to work in integrated areas (Levi Strauss, 001).


During the 150’s Levi-Strauss formed the Levi Strauss foundation, a foundation that oversaw its charitable contributions. In 158 and 15 Levis are chosen for the Worlds Fair in Brussels and are exhibited for the Fashion Industry show in Moscow. Levis continue with the integration of races within their plants, a new plant opened in Blackstone, Virginia continues this tradition, several years before desegregation became law (Levi Strauss, 001).


Levis have continued through out the decades to provide new and innovative designs within the fashion world, catering for all walks of life from the cowboy, laborer and even the academic lifestyle with the introduction of the STA-PREST jeans, which was soon adopted by the Smithsonian Institute (Levi Strauss, 001).


Today Levis are a world leader the market for denim clothing, however they do have their drawbacks which will be discussed at a later date (Levi Strauss, 001).


II. Facts


· As seen above Levi Straus and Jacob Davis patented the idea of stamping copper rivets onto mane’s pants to give them added strength. These became the world’s first jeans (Levi Strauss, 001).


· The Levis® trademark is probably the most famous trademark in the world of denim fashion, recognized in nearly 160 countries (Levi Strauss, 001).


· Levi Straus and Company is a private ownership of the original founders family (Levi Strauss, 001)


· The Shares and Stocks of the company are not part of the public concern (Levi Strauss, 001)


· The Japanese Shares of Levi Strauss Japan K.K. The companys affiliated Japanese consortium, are publicly traded in Japan (Levi Strauss, 001).


· Levi-Strauss and Company employs a staff of nearly seventeen thousand four hundred worldwide, these include one thousand four hundred staff at the San Francisco headquarters (Levi Strauss, 001).


· Levi Strauss and Company is organized into three geographic divisions worldwide (Levi Strauss, 001).


· Levi Strauss America (LSA) is the largest of the Company’s regional groups, employing over ten thousand seven hundred staff, through out the United States, Canada, Mexico and the Latin States (Levi Strauss, 001)


· The regions of the American Markets include Levi Strauss U.S., Levi Strauss Canada, Levi Strauss Mexico, Levi Strauss do Brasil, and Levi Strauss Argentina (Levi Strauss, 001).


· Levi-Strauss have the following market brands under their trademark Dockers®, and Slates® brands (Levi Strauss, 001).


· The regional headquarters for Levi Strauss America is based in San Francisco, the company’s headquarters. LAS alone accounted for $.1 billion of the companys $4.6 billion in total sales in 000 (Levi Strauss, 001).


· The Asian Pacific region of Levi Strauss and company comprises of subsidiary business, licensees and distributors through out the region.


· It employs nearly one thousand five hundred members of staff, all talented people that work together ensuring that Levi brands are to the highest of standards (Levi Strauss, 001).


· The Asia Pacific Division was established in 15.


· Levi Strauss Europe, Middle East and Africa has the responsibility of designing, manufacturing and marketing jeans and casual wear under the Levis® and Dockers® brands in these regions (Levi Strauss, 001)


· Levi Strauss Europe, Middle East and Africa have a network of around eleven sales offices, two licensee businesses thirteen centers for distribution and with areas for production. Therefore employing a total of five thousand two hundred members of staff (Levi Strauss, 001)


· Levi Strauss Europe, Middle East and Africa headquarters are located in Brussels, Belgium (Levi Strauss, 001)


· Levi Strauss Europe, Middle East and Africa accounted for revenues of $1.1 billion in 000 (Levi Strauss, 001).


III. Problem


Levi-Strauss although being one of the worlds most known maker and distributor of denim and casual wear are victims of fashion. They do not allow for the larger person with their most popular jeans. For example, within the European region one of Levi Strauss’ most popular brand is the 501 if a person has a or 40 inch waistline then there are no products suitable in the red tab range for this size like wise for some one with a 5 or 7 inch waistline. For someone with a waistline between0 and 4 inches all sizes are available however the slimmer the person the leg size decreases (Levi Strauss, 001).


Levi Strauss by allowing their regions to be autonomous have in some ways lost a certain area of the denim clad market. A major competitor of theirs, wrangler jeans, provides sizes up to 50 inch waists on many of their popular products and are run not as an autonomous regional unit but as major corporation with divisions answerable to the head office (Levi Strauss, 000 & Wrangler, 001).


Therefore, by this action of not manufacturing larger size clothing Levi-Strauss are not only limiting their customer base, and profits but also alienating those who cannot wear their garments due to their size. The percentage of large and outsize people in Europe is vast compared to those who have average size or undersize proportions (Levi Strauss, 001 & Thompson, 18) ).


Therefore by only making the clothes for the “model” type populace the customer base they could have had by opening up the size of garments has been reduced, reducing potential sales and potential profits. In the meantime their competitors are taking advantage of this apparent weakness and increasing their profits by making clothes for the larger marketed person (Levi Strauss, 001, Thompson, 18) )


However, the American side of the company has a different size range, they do provide 501 jeans for larger sizes and taller customers. The waist sizes are restricted to size 40 inch waist yet the it is likely that as the Americans understand the need that humans are not built in equal sizes they therefore are willing not to cater for a fashion market but for their customers (Levi Strauss, 001).


Perhaps Levis should take a look at their competitors, carry out customer research on a wider basis encompassing a wider aspect of the community and not just those who regularly wear their brands but those who would like to wear their brands but cannot due to the failure in the regional offices and manufacturing personnel to provide them (Levi Strauss, 001).


IV. Recommendation


Levi Strauss need to increase their market share by increasing their range of clothing sizes. Levi Strauss should remember that the larger part of their market are from the elder generation, within that older generation are those who have a higher disposable income, many of this older generation are not the model size and therefore if they wish to wear denim or fashionable clothes out side of the office then they are forced by the limitations of Levi Strauss’ inept marketing strategies.


A. Strengths of Levi Strauss


Levi Straus has a unique brand name that is known across the globe, not only have they produced the Levi range but in recent decades the Docker and Slates brands have become popular, within not only the leisure and casual wear market but also the sophisticated market (Grant, 18).


Therefore Levi Strauss have become more aware of their brand names and are working hard to maintain their image and good name within the market. Whilst maintaining a good reputation for having good clothes, designs and in many areas affordable prices.


Levi Strauss’ have over the decades produced quality clothing and accessories that has led to them receiving a reputation for such manufacturing and progress. Coupled to this Levi Strauss and Company also have a very strong ethical and motivational program that encompassed not only their workers but also charities and universities (Grant, 18).


Levis Strauss and Company have also taken a large size of the clothing market, although their clothing does not make the height of fashion with names such as Gucci and Ralph Lauren, their clothing and accessories form a major part of the clothing industries area.


One of Levi Strauss and Company’s major strengths is their regional autonomy, this allowance of having each regional headquarters answerable to itself has worked in many ways for Levi Strauss not least in the ability to corner the market in each sphere of influence. This regional autonomy also reduces the non regional and global bureaucracy that could possibly occur with international corporations.


B. Weaknesses of Levi Strauss


Due to the Regional autonomous attitudes and set up of Levi Strauss and Company one the major weaknesses is the probable inability to work as a unit, where most companies are unique in their approach to a collective fashion and style Levi Strauss are unique in that each region does its own market research, design and development, by doing this they are in effect creating a uniqueness in their diversity to be different from each region.


By having regional centers they are creating duplicate jobs through out the company, by centralizing each department and having line managers rather than regional mangers it would save on staff and also save on cross over of decisions and therefore save on a duplication of departments.


By Decentralizing each department it has led to a limited range of products for each region, this is due again to market research of what the designers feel the customer wants or needs, for instance, Europe is allegedly a heavy fashion area , therefore the very few if any styles of Levi Jeans are now straight leg, it could be argued that s the flares or boot cut or bell bottom is now in fashion then all styles have to have the wider cut leg or have a baggy style.


Whereas in the United States region, the style differs still with a straight leg for those who desire it, a baggy or comfort fir and for those into fashion the bell bottom cut. If Levi Strauss were to decentralize this then the market would be open for them in each region to cater for all demands rather than that of the fashion conscious in certain regions.


C. Opportunities that Levi Strauss has


The changes within the regional centers and within the global aspect of Levi Strauss may be an unrealistic change just because of one weakness in not covering the entire fashion and not fashion market, the cost of changing ideas, patterns and styles would be a costly change and may cause large problems within the company.


However, by changing over to the long term opportunity it may just aid the company in netting the larger share of the denim market, and catering for those who will wear clothes for clothes sake and not just to look good for cosmetic reasons. Levi Strauss could make wearing their name a fashion statement for all rather than the few. By centralizing decisions and structures this change over could be very cost effective and in the long term profitable.


D. Threats of Levi Strauss


Levi Strauss and Company has many threats to it’s supremacy as one of the world’s leading clothing manufacturers, among these threats are other manufacturers of jeans and clothes, for instance Wrangler, have a huge following within the United States and in Europe, as we have seen above Wrangler provide outsizes for larger men and women, something that Levi Strauss has failed to consider and implement in some of its regional center.


Alongside this danger from established company’s there is also the added danger of new manufacturers entering the market region in which Levi Strauss has a majority share and attempting to snatch some of that profit from them, for instance in the United Kingdom Supermarkets are making their own brand of jeans that are half the cost of Levi denims. This type of own name branding by other stores is becoming popular within most European regions where the styles are catering for the customers and the Levi Strauss makes are not.


Levi Strauss with such a large share in the fashion market have to be aware of the change in global attitudes and markets, if a recession were to hit the cotton trade or the markets were to change against Levi then they would be in danger of losing a large proportion of their funding as sales would be reduced.


By being selective in their regional centers Levi have to be aware of the change in fashion, if they continue on the present journey of only selecting and making fashion in the style for those who would wear a particular style of fashion then by alienating others they are losing sales if a change in the fickle fashion industry suddenly happens then many regions will be left with a slow change over that may again have them losing customers to other company’s that are up to date with their styles.


E. Competition that Levi Strauss has


Levi Strauss are in direct competition with companies that are involved in the denim and fashion field, companies such as Wrangler Jeans company, Lee, Chino, Marks and Spencers.


They are also in indirect competition with companies that have entered the manufacturing market and are using their own name and their own stores to sell their products. And other businesses that are not normally know for making denim clothing such as Adidas.


V. One to three year strategic plan.


For a strategic plan looking at a possible new design to enter the market within the first half a year


From months one through to three, the company should carry out customer research and also company research, looking at what sizes and styles the customer would consider wearing. The company should also stay away from its regular fields of purchasers and look at the age groups of 18 to 0, 1-4, 5-0. 1-8 and and above. Also the company should look at differing sizes rather than the average size.


Carrying on from customer research, researcher should also look at the competition with in the market and compare what their competitors have to offer, if a similar range is offered then compare the differences and attempt to improve on design, size, and even cost.


During this preliminary stage a marketing plan should be drawn up and examined against previous marketing plans, again looking for improvement in regions that have been explored and also exploring new regions.


From months three through to six, prototypes should be developed in conjunction with new designs and also from the analyzation of the customer research results, making the necessary changes in the marketing plan, and also bringing in new designs if the research calls for it


From six through to twelve months designs should be finalized, and appropriate launch dates for the new style or range of clothing should be launched, perhaps arranging a clothes show in key areas or arranging the launch to coincide with a major fashion show in several regional areas.


The low key marketing plans should be initiated, with use of appropriate media uses such as slimming or health magazines along with women’s and certain men’s magazines.


Distribution to main suppliers including point of sale materials should be arranged during this stage, jeans should be established within retail units and outlets by the end of the twelve month stage.


From the twelve through to twenty four month stage, marketing campaigns should be reviewed, changes within the point of sale material should be undertaken to avoid advertising becoming stale and boring, and also attracting those customers who have slipped through previous advertising campaign. Original sale projections should be compared with actual sales, marketing plans should be improved or reviewed or updated where necessary.


By the twenty four through to the thirty six month stage all products should have been absorbed into normal sales plans.


As would be fairly standard with this form of marketing plan (Kotler 000),


VI. Alternatives


The company does have alternatives apart form the above year plan, it can do nothing and hope that the problem of not having all the market does not affect sales in any way. Or it can expand another line of clothes different from jeans, however this could prove difficult with styles and designs and possible market research still would be carried out therefore bringing the company back to its original three year plan for a revamping of an old style garment for a new market.


VII. References


Grant R. M,(18), Contemporary Strategy Analysis, London, Blackwell Business Press.


(Kotler, P ( 000), Marketing Management Millennium Edition, London. Prentice Hall


Levi Stauss Homepage accessed at http//www.levistrauss.com/index_sitemap.html (001)


Thompson J (18) Strategic Management; Awareness and Change, London, Thomson Business Press


Wrangler Jeans Homepage accessed at http//www.wrangler.com (001)


Van Steenwick E (188) Levi Strauss The Blue Jeans Man Walker & Co





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Eric Erikson

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Introduction


In Classic Greek Mythology, Athens had a democracy, but had no concept of freedom. Freedom evolved three centuries after Christ. There also was no notion or concept of person, which comes from the word persona, - a mask used in the theatre that depicted happy and sad characters. Members of the society of Athens were one hundred percent citizens of the city-state. Even the gods of Athens were territorial (i.e. the gods of Athens were the gods of Athens). Classic philosophers believed in nature and the cosmos and further believed that the cosmos always existed as it was with no beginning and no end. Classic philosophers also envisioned human nature as cycle and the soul as immortal. Classic philosophers such as Plato and Aristotle believed that the soul came from the world of ideas and that at birth; the soul fell into the body. Upon death, the soul returned to the world of perfect truth, which is the world of ideas.


Philosophy began in the seventh century before Christ. According to classic philosophers, there was always a mythological reason why things happened. These philosophers contend that philosophy could not be bounded by state, geographic location, or culture simply because philosophy is based on reason, which appeals to the philosopher. Poets, on the other hand, disagree with this concept and approach and viewed things in a totally different light. The Poets, who were also the theologians, lawmakers of the city, and creators of the gods, contend that anything conflicting with or outside of the concept and approach of the city is looked upon as undermining the city, which is an act of impiety. Poets deal with matter of fact whereas philosophers deal with reason. The different points of view and the differences of opinion caused conflict between the philosopher and the poet.


The Trail and Death of Socrates


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The Trail and Death of Socrates reflect these differences. The first segment of this four-part saga - Euthyphro - deals with Socrates desperate search for truth regarding piety. Socrates, the Philosopher, has been accused by Meletus, the Poet, of impiety. Meletus accusations are that Socrates is attempting to corrupt the young and is denying the gods, which is an act of impiety against the City. While in the king-archons court, Socrates runs into Euthyphro - a Theologian, who is prosecuting his own father for impiety for killing a servant, who by the way is a murderer himself. During this dialogue between Socrates and Euthyphro, Socrates attempts to understand the differences between piety and impiety from Euthyphro. Socrates assumes that Euthyphro, of all people, knows the true meaning of piety because he is a Theologian and because he is prosecuting his own father for impiety. Contrary to his own thought, Socrates discovers that Euthyphros definition of piety does not hold solid, leaving room for doubt and confusion based on ones own interpretation. This of course does not sit well with Socrates.


Part two, the Apology, provides Socrates the opportunity to serve in his own defense. During his speech, Socrates not only attempts to defend himself, but attempts to defend philosophy as well, which is a threat to Athens. He is determined guilty by the city-state, allowed to provide input to his sentencing, and is inevitably condemned to death. In the third act of this saga, Citro, Socrates prepares for death. His friend Citro pleads with him to escape into exile, but Socrates would not hear of it. While Socrates is a philosopher, he is also a citizen of Athens - the city he loves. Escaping into exile means leaving the city. He states in his conversation with Citro that while he was sentenced to death, he has been treated fairly and that justice has been served. He realizes that in order to be a part of the city, he had to abide by rules, regulations and guidelines instated by the city. He states that upon birth, Athens nurtured, educated, and gave him a share of the good things. He conveys to Citro had he not been satisfied with the city and its laws, he and any other dissatisfied citizen had the right and was afforded the opportunity to leave the city. He indicates that he chose to stay, which in essence meant he accepted the laws and regulations of the justice system of Athens. To escape into exile is an act of injustice against Athens. For these reasons, he indicates he cannot escape into exile and must therefore withstand the consequences of the penalties inflicted upon him (Note Athens definition of justice was to love your friends and harm your enemy. Justice was not a method of principle. To Athens, it was a matter of power). In the final saga, Phaedo, Socrates’ friends visits him in prison in his final days. He drinks the hemlock at sundown and escapes into the world of ideas.


Plato


Plato, a philosopher, a citizen of Athens and a student of Socrates as well, valued knowledge and hated ignorance. He viewed knowledge as virtuous and good and saw ignorance as negative and evil. Plato viewed the world as a world of necessity, a carbon copy and a world of untruth. Plato contends that ethics cannot exist unless there is a society. There is no good or bad if one is living alone on an isolated and deserted island. He argues that good and bad can only exists if one is living in a society and the society or the community is offended. He further argues that an ethical world only exists in a society free of human beings, and declares that humans can only become ethical after death. In addition, Plato had no concept or notion of freedom or individuality for the concept of individual rights were unknown. The concept of democracy existed, but not freedom of the will.


The Republic


In the Republic, Plato wants to redeem Socrates by building the perfect city. In building his city, he builds philosophy, which is the world of truth (NOTE If the philosopher is to be recognized in the city, he must be educated - which leads to the world of ideas) Plato attempts to build a city free of classes and geographical boundaries. He envisions in thought what is needed for a luxurious city, but reaches a point of realization acknowledging that a city cannot exist without classes or geographical boundaries. The realization of classes and boundaries conflict with his thoughts as a philosopher because to the philosopher, there are no classes and boundaries. In efforts to rationalize the two, Plato presents the noble lie, which justifies his city with classes and geographical boundaries. Plato attempts to justify the noble lie by dividing it into two parts. The first part of the lie defines territoriality and contends that people are from the soil, which represents geographical boundaries. The second part of the lie concludes that people are made of various metals (i.e. gold, silver, and bronze), which represents or identifies the classes. Plato identifies the rulers as the wise men and they are made of gold; the guardians are the courageous and they are made of silver, and the craftsmen are the moderators and they are made of bronze. Plato was thinking as a citizen when he justified the classes and geographical boundaries, and as a philosopher when he justified the classes and geographical boundaries as a lie.


Allegory of the Cave


Platos allegory of the cave and the noble lie are synonymous. In the allegory of the cave, he describes the conditions of prisoners living in an underground cave like dwelling with one entrance opened to light across the width of the cave. The prisoners have been chained in this cave from birth and only able to see what is in front of them. The light is a fire burning far above and behind them. Between the fire and the prisoners is a road, which is also above them, and a wall built like the partition of a puppet-handler. The prisoners see human beings carrying artifacts, which projects shadows above the wall. To these prisoners, truth is the projection of the shadows. Meanwhile, one of the prisoners free himself, turns around and looks toward the light and sees the reality of what he saw as shadows. Plato contends this man would be more compelled to believe that truth and reality exists in what he saw as shadows than in what he actually sees.





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bob

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- APP=TPP/#workers


- MPP=change TPP/change #workers


- When MPP is at highest value, MC is at lowest value


- TC=TFC + TVC


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- AVC=TVC/Q first falls then rises law of Diminishing Marginal Returns


- AFC=TFC/Q decreases as output increases


- ATC=TC/Q AFC+AVC first falls then rises law of Diminishing Marginal Returns


- MC= Change in TC / Change in Q. initially falls then rises as output rises


- SRATC=TC / Total Q when one resource is fixed


- Profit=TR-TC TR=P x Q profit max where MC=MC elasticity of demand=1


- Short run- at least 1 input resource fixed, LR-all resources variable


- MC intersects ATC and AVC at min. value points


- LRATC- lowest cost combo of resources with which each Level of output is produced when all resources are variable


- Economy of scale P falls as Q rises. Diseconomy of scale P rises as Q rises Constant returns to scale P constant as Q rises


- Causes of Economy of scale employee specialization, machinery efficiency


- Causes of Diseconomy of scale difficulty managing large enterprises


- MES output level at which cost per unit is lowest, min pt on LR AVC


- Perfect competition standardized products, many firms, easy entry, perfect info, price taker, horizontal line at equilibrium Price (perfectly


elastic demand), price change line shifts up or down, MR=MC profit max or loss min


- If price is above ATCàprofit if price is below ATCà loss break evenàequal to min pt on AVC (norm. economic profit)


- Temp Shutdown priceàmin pt. on AVC curve, if price is less than shutdown price, firm should shut down in SR


- Perm. Shutdown price in LRàmin pt on ATC curve, if price is less than shutdown price, firm should shut down in LR


- Firm’s supply curve in SRàportion of MC curve lies above ATC curve, LRàportion MC that lies above min pt. on ATC


- Positive econ profit�TR is greater than TC including all Opportunity cost, increased entry into market, added value exceeds return


shareholders expected to get in alternative investment, firm returns more to owners than Opportunity cost


- Negative economic profit�TR is less than TC, increased exit


- Zero (norm) econ profit�TR=TC firm neither adds/subtracts value, revenue pays inputs, no profit, no entry/exit, price= to min. pt. on ATC


- Allocative efficiency-Price=MC, firms produce goods consumer wants, productive efficiency-firms produce goods at lowest possible cost


- Law of Diminishing Marginal Ret- When successive equal amts. of a var. resource are comb with a fixed amt of another resource,


marginal increases in output can be attributed to each add unit of the variable resource. It will eventually decline.


- Law of Diminishing Marginal Returns shows the relationship between costs and output in the short-run.


- What does a U-Shape rep in cost curve? � That output has increased. A great deal of output can be produced by each add unit of a var


resource initially, eventually the increase of output slows and may decline as more variable resources are added, and there is excess.


- Unit costs remain constant as the quantity of production increases, and all resources remain variable


- U-shape in Long-Run- From the economies and diseconomies of scale, unlike short-run curves who get it from Diminishing Marginal Ret.


- Adding value mean- Creating output that is more valuable than the resources used to create the output.


- Economic Profit- Total revenue less than total costs including all opportunity costs.


- Accounting Profit- Total revenue less than total costs, excluding opportunity costs of capital.


- Negative Economic Profit- Total revenue is less than total costs when total costs include opportunity costs.


- Maximum profit- At the point where Marginal Cost (MC) = Marginal Revenue (MR). (MC=MR)


- When MCMR, producing more = less profit. When MCMR, producing more, more profit.


- Supply Rule- Produce and offer for sale the quantity at which MR= MC to maximize profit.


- Monopoly- Sole providers of one product, ultimate price setting power, difficult entry.


- Monopolistic Competition- Large number of firms, easy entry, different products, little price elasticity.


- Oligopoly- few firms, each affects the market directly, entry into market is quite difficult, Interdependent


- What is special about the curve of a perfectly competitive firm? � MR=D=AR=P


- Perfectly Competitive firm- many firms, identical products, entrance/exit easy, price taker, decides only on how much output.


- Shut down Price- the minimum point of the AVC curve. If market price min pt of AVC, will endure less losses to if it stops prod.


- Break even Price- the min pt on the ATC curve. Economic profit = 0, but firm is making enough $ to sustain its operation.


- Permanent Shut-Down- If all costs can’t be covered in the long run. Stay above minimum point on ATC curve.


- Perfectly competitive firm in long run- makes normal profit ($0).


- Economic Efficiency- When the price of a good of service barely covers the MC of producing the good. People get what they want.


- Producer Surplus- Difference between the price firms would’ve been willing to accept for products, and the higher price they


Received. Area below equilibrium price, and below the demand curve.


- Consumer Surplus- Area above Equilibrium price and below the demand curve. The price that the consumer is willing to pay,


and the lower price, which the consumer actually ends up paying.








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Music

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Music


By Jesus Mendez


I personally like all types of music; I am very versatile when it comes to my listening taste. But I think that the two that touch me the most, or help me through things would have to be, New Age, and Latin contemporary music. As far as New Age is concerned the beats and the lyrics are very soothing, they help me get my mind of things when I’m faced with stressful situations; I like to seclude myself in a private place, dim the lights, and just relax into the music, and allow the lyrics to take me somewhere different and far. As far as contemporary Latin music, that type of music always reminds me of my culture and of where I came from; especially when I’m dancing to the music, I feel as though I’m expressing where I come from through my moves. Also the lyrics are usually in some way related to what I’m sure is what every Latino has gone through throughout their lives; it varies from love, to happiness, to everyday life.


First I want to get into what New Age music does to me. Whenever I have faced a very stressful situation or I feel as though I need to get away just for a little while, I usually put in one of my CD’s. Ever since I first discovered the genre of


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music which was when I was about 14 for 15 it has always helped me relieve some stress from my life; and it also helps me meditate, because, the music is so soothing and the beats have a way of getting inside your mind and help you clear your mind of everything that’s going on at the current moment.


Secondly, my other favorite type of music is contemporary latin music. There are a lot of different kind’s o contemporary latin music but I think that it would be unfair to say that only one in particular affects me. I listen to all types of music and they each have their individual way of affecting me. That kind of music reminds of my culture and never lets me forget of where I came from, from the lyrics to the way that it makes you move your body when you are dancing to it. It has a way of enticing your body and it turns from being only a dance to becoming a more of an art form. Also the lyrics they almost always relate to something that has happened in my life from family problems, to love that’s been won and then lost, down to everyday life.


In conclusion, like I mention earlier I’m the type of person that will listen to all types of music they all have the way of affecting me in their own respective way. But I felt that these two specific types of music are the ones that have made the biggest impact in the way that I have grown up and matured into the person that I am now.





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Comparing and Contrasting The Sign of the Beaver and Keeping the Promise

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In the book The Sign of the Beaver and the movie Keeping the Promise there are


are similarities and difference. One of the similarities that exists is that Matt used sticks to find out how many weeks his father was gone. He used about ten sticks. One stick would have seven notches for each week. Four sticks for a month. Another similarity is that Matt meets Ben. He is a fat man with a blue army coat, and he really likes tobacco. He sees Matt’s gun and told him it was worth a passel of beaver. He stayed the night and the next morning the rifle was gone.


When Matt chases after Ben for his gun, he trips and falls in a stream and gets knocked unconscious. Then two Indians, Saknis and Attean, saved him and brought him


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back to the cabin. They made a treaty, that is, Attean brings him food/offerings. Matt teaches Attean how to read white man signs. Another important similarity is that Attean gave Matt his dog. Yes, the good for nothing dog. He gave it to him as a gift when he left.


Another important likeness is that Attean got his vision or


“Manitou“. It was the time that he had to stay alone in the forest for many days. He could not drink or eat any thing but a little bit of water before going to bed. It came to him in a dream. Those are the simalarites between the book and the movie.


The movie and the book also possess some differences. Here are some of the differences that I found. The first one is the baby is born in the beginning. In the book, Matt never met the baby. In the movie, he saw him before he left. They started in different places. In the book, they started in Springfield, Mass. There were no bees. When Matt was getting honey, the bees chased him into the stream. In the movie he fell in the stream and almost drowned. Matt got his rifle back from Ben, but it was broken. Matt and Attean tried to take it back from Ben. He chased them and then Ben got caught in his own trap. Matt helped him out of his trap. They did not have the bear feast. In the book, they meet the bear and Attean killed it while Matt distracted him by throwing a rabbit at its head. Those are the differences between the book and the movie.


I liked the movie more than the book because it was not very long. It was a lot less boring than the book and we had no study guides or plotlines. This is why I liked the movie more than the book.

















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