'Wallace was an outsider, so it's no wonder we don't remember him as a great scientist. He didn't limit his research to proper scientific subjects.' Respond to these assertions in an essay of 1200 words, drawing on your study of the History of Science d

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Scientific advances are the product of human endeavours through time. Science has a history that can be plotted back to a time before the terminology scientist was coined by William Whewell, and although there are numerous scientific discoveries which precede it, the 1th century with its emphasis on technology and industrial growth saw a great push in the field of science. The political and economic situation, combined with an increasing interest in, and knowledge of the natural world, to create a climate in which scientific discoveries could be made and great scientists recognised. The history of science can provide an insight into why Wallace, despite his in depth work on the laws of nature, and natural selection (which rivalled that of Darwin) is thought of as an outsider rather than a great scientist.


The history of science has until recently been based on a two-track model involving the principles of naturalism and symmetry. Naturalism, relates to science as a natural human creation driven by the pursuit of truth, with all things supernatural ruled out. With naturalism everything that happens must have an understandable cause based on empirical evidence and which obeys physical laws and causality. Within the symmetry principle, science is judged as either right or wrong, and creates heros and villians rather than players and relegates certain scientific knowledge as invalid. This picking and choosing however depends on knowing what counts as science. Was Wallace’s ‘science’ classified as invalid by the established scientific bodies and his work consequently destined for obscurity?


There is primary evidence available in historical writings to suggest that Wallace’s reputation suffered through internalist views which upheld the two-track model described above.


The British Association was the established and consequently authoritative body of scientific study, an association founded by Oxbridge Dons and backed by rich and respectable members of society. This association was keen to direct funding into safe and appropriate works and sought to reinforce established boundaries by marking those that went outside of them as radicals or crackpots. For 1th century researchers these restrictions included subjects such as evolution and the origin of the universe by the Church who saw these as belonging to the spiritual rather that scientific domain, a restriction which was reinforced by British Association of Science. For the British Association externalists were considered to be influenced by external, social, political, economic and cultural factors which were considered dangerous. For a number of reasons it is understandable why the British Association would consider Wallace as falling into both the ‘outsider’ and ‘externalist’ categories.


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In the first instance there were two very basic reasons why Wallace would be categorised in such a way. The first relates to the symmetry principle outlined above, which relies on winners and losers, and consequently relegated Wallace’s reputation to the second division because he came an unfortunate second to Darwin with his theory of evolution by ‘natural selection’ in an age which sought scientific heroes. The second reason was that Wallace did not fit into the same mould as other scientists of the age, such as Darwin and Newton who were gentlemen of independent means. Wallace was ‘working class’ and self-taught rather than Oxbridge educated. However there were much deeper reasons why Wallaces views would be considered unacceptable based on his views on selection, socialism and spiritualism.


Wallaces interest in the natural sciences was acquired during his work as a surveyor in South-Wales. His early work The South-Wales Farmer provided an early insight into Wallace’s ability to combine biology, geology and socio-political observations that he would later use in his travels to South-America and the Far East. Wallace was an evolutionist, and evolution was considered not only as a heresy, but also a pseudo-science. Wallaces evolutionist beliefs can be seen in his early work describing the Welsh hill farmers where he describes the people almost as an under-developed and evolving society in comparison to the English farmers of his acquaintance. Wallace also clearly embraced an ape ancestry in his article, A new kind of baby written in 1856, when he likened the orang-utans to descendants of some kind of primitive people. This occurred some years prior to his unexpected connection between the work An essay on the Principles of Population by Thomas Malthus, his experiences with the Welsh hill farmers and his concept of natural selection. The links between Wallaces work and that of Darwins were very strong and it would not be unreasonable to consider that Wallace might have received some of the accolades afforded to Darwin. However Darwin as a model scientist was careful in the way he presented his work, his reinforcement of the superiority of the white man over the primitive people he met was more acceptable than the view handed down by Wallace. Wallace sees them as interesting and that the good qualities of savage life will be lost to the vices of civilisation. Wallaces views would not have found favour in Victorian England where the superiority of the British male was supreme. Wallace however did not have as much to lose as Darwin and his openness and honesty in his scientific studies gave him an authority to follow all avenues of interest to him. This diversity led him into the world of spiritualism.


Initially Wallace deplored superstition which he shows in his denouncement of the habits of the Welsh farmers and his scientific scepticism is apparent in his first encounter with spiritualism with his remarks account …this was done to prevent me lighting the gas. Spiritualism was a craze sweeping British drawing rooms and Wallace soon became convinced by what he saw. Wallaces conversion was not based on the laws of nature which could not provide an answer to the events he witnessed, however he challenged the sceptical scientific fraternity to to offer some explanation of this phenomenom. I pledge my word for the reality of the facts…. In response however Wallace found himself ostracised by his fellow scientists and by the highly political British Association, which was controlled mostly by those of the new scientific persuasion interested only in studying natural subjects in suitable ways.


In a further way Wallace’s socialist leanings would also not have found favour amongst the establishment of 1th century Britain as socialism represented a threat to the established order of things. For Wallace however his background of attending working men’s clubs and listening to lectures from such people as Robert Owen the industrial reformist, as well as his first hand experience of the suffering of the Welsh hill farmers provided his socialist education. Wallace’s socialist sympathies are evident from his very first article entitled ‘The South-Wales Farmer’, and his later views on the enclosure of common lands as ‘legalised robbery of the poor for the aggrandisement of the rich’ and his support of a land nationalisation scheme highlighted these further. For Wallace all human nature was perfectible through education and environment and his publications reflected his sympathy with those indigenous people he met. His socialist principles were also demonstrated in his article on Human Selection in which Wallace expressed the view that women should hold the responsibility for raising the average standard of the race….through the agency of female choice in marriage a weeding out system…by which the animal and vegetable worlds have been improved and developed. This was an extremely controversial view for a country where women did not yet have the vote.


Beliefs, practices and meanings change through time and achieving consensual views involves controversy, negotiation and persuasion. Change has not been an automatic process and scientific knowledge today is not the inevitable outcome of the past but rather a cumulative and progressive system, which benefits from new insights. The removal of any one factor may have resulted in a different history. For Wolpert, science relates to the outside world and its success depends on how well theories correspond with reality. This contextualist model of the history of science sees scientific resources not as internal or external, or scientific or social, but provides an explanation of the science of any period by looking at what we now know to be true, and assessing the past in relation to this knowledge. It can be argued that through his relationship with Darwin and others in the British Association that Wallace was not a total outsider. However because he allowed himself the luxury of studying anything which stimulated his interest, subjects which at the time were considered unscientific and frivolous both he and his work were relegated in the history of science. Although he may not be considered a great scientist alongside the likes of Newton, Farraday and Darwin his reputation as a naturalist resulting from his travels and writing must be secure.


Bibliography


Darwin, Charles, Among the Fuegians, Open University, A10, B Resource Book , p.7.


Wallace, Alfred Russel, Among the Uaup�s, Open University, A10, B Resource Book , p.71


Wallace, Alfred Russel, Notes of a s�ance with Miss Nicholl, 1867, Open University, A10, B8 Resource Book , p.8


Wallace, Alfred Russel, Notes of a s�ance with Miss Nicholl, 1867, Open University, A10, B Resource Book , p.85


Wallace, Alfred Russel, Notes of a s�ance with Miss Nicholl, 1867, Open University, A10, B Resource Book , p.85


Wallace, Alfred Russel, Human Selection, Open University, A10, B10 Resource Book , p.86


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goal theory

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Goal theory means pursing a goal and each goal is associated with a behavior and a belief. The way we react in our everyday lives depends on the goals we set for our future. In my research I have found that there are two types of goals, it is mastery and performance. The mastery-oriented person wants to increase their knowledge and competence and are intrinsically motivated, by pride and satisfaction that comes from success due to their effort. People who exhibit performance goals are interested in showing their ability. Your goal in life will vary according your individual circumstance. They believe that ability is the cause of success and failure. Having goals will motivate individuals to different levels of success. In other words we have to be motivate in order to reach our goals in life. At Bellsouth where I work to achieve our sales goals the team leaders create methods to motivate their members.


The team I am on head by a very innovative person first thought of the idea of finding a name for the team, he discovered a team that will represent the strength and will power that we can do it. He names the team the rhinos. He stated that the reason he gave our team that name is because with rhinoceros anything that gets in its way it will conquer it. So this is to show that we have the power to excel and be all we want to be. Then he also came up with the idea of writing down what we could do with $1000 extra on our checks monthly this was one of the strongest motivational factors that influenced our team to exceed so well. He also makes sure that we are keep well informed of different strategies to help us reach our goal. The idea was to have a goal and work towards it, and to help us achieve it he had to come with some extrinsic factor that would motivate us to go above and beyond what is required of us. So far his team has been the #1 team in our unit.


As an office because of the high sales pressure we experience everyday they and the office is so large they often times struggle with finding ideas to keep us motivated. In an office such as this most people tend to strive on extrinsic motivations. We like to be commended to the good work we do even when it not that good. We like to get thing or rewards for coming up with ideas. We want to get pay but not give our best to the task at hand. So in order for us to be the best as an office we had to come up with something. The idea that we used was to develop an on line store with different items and we had to sell to earn points then you can go shopping. This idea has been going on for the past two years and has been very successful. This way everyone can participate and be motivated to do well. Also we try to do different activities to cater for everyone’s culture since we are such a diverse office.


In conclusion, some people get motivated from within while other needs outside forces to get motivated. However as long as your goal is achieved is does not matter whether you intrinsically motivated or extrinsically motivated. The key is to be happy with yourself and be all you can be.


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References


Goal theory. http//www.stemnet.nf.ca/~dtroke/goal_theory.htm. Retrieved may ,00.





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What would you do in society?

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William Wordsworth’s writing piece of My Heart Leaps Up When I Behold can be considered as a poetic piece on a heavenly level. My reason for this is how he describes the beginning and ending of an individual’s life. It shows a type of devoutness to God through the creation of man. His acceptance of what must be shows passion in the evidence of mankind. That man is fated for certain things; no matter how much we want or try to change.


The cultural interpretation I would apply to the “The Child is father of the Man”, would be that a child which has a pure innocence may hold the key to unlocking the full potential of man. From childhood, we become accustomed to learning all types of things and we start to choose our paths. We all should know that the Father is the head of the household in which he bears certain responsibilities. By saying the adult or Father as depicted hear, it shows a level of superiority that can only be achieved through age.


Wordsworth’s observation to me has not been applied on the individual in society. I feel that so many only look for their succession in their own goals. Where as a child, there is a certain purity that if harnessed correctly can optimize their potential into something beautiful. I feel from this observation man has forgotten this lesson long ago. This is a lesson we must learn if we are to get back what we as individuals lost




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Source of art

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Painting might appear to some people to be easy to accomplish, but in reality there are many facets to reaching a well rounded and well designed one. Some of the factors that influence the outcome of a painting are technique, vision and nature. All of these are intertwined to bring together all the components so they are seen as one. This wholeness brings out life in the painting and embeds spirit in its surroundings. Painting of an object is the type of art that cannot develop all by itself without taking into consideration the surroundings that constitute its environment.


When an artist decides on a particular painting, he or she ought to have imagined it first. When this basic imagination is in place, the role of the technique in the painting comes into play. Painting techniques can be taught and mastered as skills. Different aspects of the painting such as color and form come together as one and show continuation and consistency from one layer to another. Having the talent to master the painting techniques sets the stage to a defined direction of the painting objective. Techniques allow the artist to mask the inconsistencies that could and might appear in a painting. Mastering the necessary technique provide the artist with the ability to make his or her painting as integrated as possible with the help of the artist’s vision. This vision can help the artist to stay focused on the original idea for the painting.


In order to make something standout in a painting, the painter must have the knowledge and the vision to accomplish that. People certainly learn differently from their experiences in life. Having the knowledge to reflect and view things from different angle is part of having the vision, experience and maturity. Knowledge on the other hand is an accumulation of lessons and experiences taught throughout one’s life. Painters should reflect their knowledge and past experiences in life through their paintings. The desire to paint should be initiated from inside.


The integration that exists between all living things and nature could only be experienced by allowing oneself to follow his or her instinct. Traveling down the Mississippi River was a great way, in my opinion, to get in touch with nature and with the creative spirit. The solitude, the current of the river, the wind, the gigantic mountains, the big forest, the vast skies and the quietness, all of these combined had somehow reached inside among the travelers and invoked the human spiritual side. One could only imagine how this mighty vast open nature could exist without any force behind it.


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Painting and music are two types of art. Yet, one could only say that they have some commonalities. For instant, devotion, determination and aim to excellence are some that artists share. I do think that Aso will agree partially with Thomas who wrote “the artistic process is complex and arduous”. In both fields of art music and art painting, artists are faced with a blank piece of paper where they have to express their talents. It is almost always difficult to search and find new ideas. The difference between an artist and non-artist person is the knowledge, vision and experience that an artist possesses and helps her or him turn that idea into a beautiful piece to hear or see. The difficult part is to brainstorm your ideas and piece them together to come up with a unified and complete creation. It is true that it can be time consuming, difficult and full of hardship, but the rewards can be enormous with great feelings of accomplishment after all that went into it.


In the “Dream Assembly” Rebbi Zalman is a very smart and respectful man. He successfully got his idea across Hasidim group. When he realized that there was disagreement between the members of the group he ceased the opportunity to unify them again. The shared responsibilities to construct the dove were dependent of each other well completed work, which was a must. Because of the difficult tasks to construct a perfect dove “Great harmony is required” for each one of them. Bringing all elements together plays the key role that is shared among “The dream assembly”, painting, composing a piece and music, or writing a story.





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Contemporary Architect – Kisho Kurokawa

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“Any ranking system of contemporary architects would have to put Kurokawa near the top of the global ranking superleague.” It is what Peter Wislocki though of Kurokawa as a contemporary architect. Kisho Kurokawa’s buildings explores the notion of engawa, the “in between space” where public realm and private space co-exist in harmony. “I consider architecture to be an expression of philosophy… Therefore an architect must be a philosopher who discerns the spirit of the age.” Kisho Kurokawa also developed his own philosophy for architecture and published his own books. The Nakagin Capsule Tower, one of his early works, and the Nara City Museum of Photography were two of his many great works which were outstanding.


Kisho Kurokawa was born in Aichi Prefecture, Japan 14. He graduated from Kyoto University for the Bachelor of Architecture in 157; he then studied at Graduate School of Tokyo University for the Master of Architecture under Kenzo Tange, also a great Japanese architect; then he finally receives his Doctorate in Architecture in Tokyo University in 164. There is no doubt that his early interests in industrialised modernism were greatly influenced by Kenzo Tange. In his early career, he rejected the conventional Modernism and a Western obsession with mechanical analogy. Not only is he “Japan’s most eminent architect” , but also a philosopher and a publisher. Kisho Kurokawa became a famous architect in his mid 0s in the year 160 as a co-founder of the Metabolism Movement. His philosophy of symbiosis has established him as one of the world’s leading thinkers on architecture. His architectural activities now extend from Japan to the United States, Europe, the Middle East, Asia, and Africa. Not only does he design museums, and he also designs universities, government and commercial buildings, factories, towns and cities and football stadiums as well. He is currently the advisor of the Prime Minister of the Republic of Kazakhstan, the President of the Japan society of Landscape Design, and he is also the President of Kisho Kurokawa architect and associate (KKAA). Kisho Kurokawa is in tune with the continually shifting zeitgeist and interprets it is his own unique way. He has put into his architecture the elements of growth and change. He considers architecture as part of the space opened to society rather than a work of art. Some of his publications are “Creating Contemporary Architecture”, “Philosophy of Symbiosis”, and “Metabolism to Symbiosis”. Other of his major architectural works includes Toyota Stadium, Oita Stadium, the New Wing of the Van Gogh Museum, and Hiroshima City Museum of Contemporary Art. However, his early work, Nakagin Capsule Tower (17), and the Nara City Museum of Photography were the most attractive.


Kisho Kurokawa contributed to the “art world” by introducing the Metabolism Movement for architecture as well as his theory on Symbiosis for architecture. Metabolism is a movement which anticipates many of today’s concerns with buildings intelligence, responsive environments and design for change. The Metabolism group includes the Japanese architects Kiyonori Kikutake, Kisho Kurokawa, Fumihiko Maki, and Masato Otaka along with a graphic designer Kiyoshi Awazu issued a manifesto describing their conception of megastructural urbanism which they called Metabolism. “The reason why we use the biological word metabolism is that we believe design and technology should denote human vitality.” Kurokawa explains here why they decided to pick metabolism as the word for their movement. Metabolism was predicated on the belief that human societies could be modeled in natural terms and that design could arbitrate the intersection of technological and biological processes. Not only was Kisho Kurokawa a co-founder of the Metabolism Movement, he also came up with the philosophy of symbiosis. A great conceptual revolution is underway across the world quietly; it is unarguably changing the way of living and our idea of what it is to be human. This great, invisible change Kisho Kurokawa identifies it as the philosophy of symbiosis. In 15, Kisho Kurokawa puts a new architectural paradigm which envisaged cities and architecture as organisms capable of growth and change.


One of his earlier works which is the Nakagin Capsule Tower, the world’s first capsule architecture built for actual use. It was build between 170 and 17 with steel and reinforced concrete. It contains one basement floor and 11 and 1 floors. The building area is 4.51m² and the total floor area is ,07.m². It is built in Ginza, one of the busiest areas in Tokyo. It was design to provide sleeping arrangements to a large number of commuting workers on an extremely small site. Not only could it accommodate workers, but it could also accommodate the individual as either an apartment or studio space, and by connecting the capsule together, it could accommodate a family. Each capsule is directly connected to the central core tower that would provide support and internal movement from ground to capsule. Unlike Habitat, the capsule will “hang” from the core rather than being supported by the capsule beneath it. Capsule architecture design, establishment of the capsule as room and insertion of the capsule into a mega-structure, expresses its contemporaneousness with other works of unconventional architecture from the later 160s. Kurokawa developed the technology to install the capsules into the concrete core with only 4 high-tension bolts, as well as making the capsules removable and replaceable. One advantage of this system is that if more people are in need of the service of the capsule, then more capsules will be added. Another aspect of the tower is its understanding of its modular parts There are the capsules, and there is the central core tower. The capsules are like pockets, used privately by different people, and that it is necessary that people entering the tower enter for the purpose of arriving at one of the capsules. The central core tower makes up the central movement space, used publicly by all the inhabitants. It is not the purpose of the tower, but it is used by everyone and must be in place before the capsules themselves can be placed, opened and used. Each capsule contains appliances and furniture, from audio to telephones. The elements of design used in this building includes lines as the capsule forms them, connecting each other together; shape, as all the capsule are squares and the windows are circle; the forms for this building is made of cubes; but there are hardly any use of colours, it is basically greyish colour throughout the whole building. Some of the principles of design used symmetrical since all the capsule units are made of cubes; and pattern is run throughout the whole building where the capsule units repeats itself around the central core. The Nakagin Capsule Tower realizes the ideas of metabolism, exchangeability, recyclable as the prototype of suspenseful architecture.


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Nara City Museum of Photography was built between the years 18 to 11. Its materials are reinforced concrete (basements) and steel structure. The Nara City Museum of Photography was built to house the negatives of images and a personal collection of work received as a gift from the late photographer Yasukichi Irie, who captures the town and Buddhist images on film throughout his lifetime. Although there are many different buildings surround the museum such as Shinyakushiji Temple and Nara University, the area still remains resplendent for it retains the characteristic of Nara landscape and atmosphere. The museum was nearly built underground and on top of this underground art museum, a roof that looked “as if it was suspended from the heavens” was built with one other level. There were only the entrance hall and a tea room on the first level and the walls around it was made of glass, it emphasizes the feeling of lightness and transparency. From the outside, the room would look as if it was floating since only the roof was visible. Since the space that Kisho Kurokawa has to work with is very close to the temple which was titled National Treasure and by law, if any structure was to be built in areas adjacent to local historical structure, the building must use the similar roofing tiles to those of Nara Period. For the roofing of the Nara City Museum of Photography, they would employ titles similar to the Nara Period and on the underside they would use metallic plating to incorporate a modern design to resemble an airplane wing. For the curve part of the roof, although titles similar to the Nara Period were used as a reference, they also worked with the modern crossoid curve. Some of the principles of design used are emphasis, since the glass wall emphasize the lightness and transparency of the building; and movement, when it is viewed from the outside, the building seem like it is floating in the air, since the roof was the only think visible. The Nara City Museum of Photography was given the Japan Art Academy’s Prize because of it harmonic relationship to the historic surroundings.


Since the beginning of Kisho Kurokawa’s career, his career has blossomed to become one of Japan’s leading architects of today. He applied the metabolism into his architecture, which makes the private space and public realm co-exist in harmony, where his works blends into its surroundings. Being one of the co-founders of the Metabolism Movement and developing the philosophy of symbiosis also establish where he is today.


“Kisho Kurokawa Metabolism + Recent Work.” Online. Available http//www.cube.org.uk/exhibitions/past0.htm, March 00, par. .


Kisho Kurokawa Metabolism + Recent Work par. 4


“Biography- Kisho Kurokawa.” Online. Available http//www.glenfiddich.com/mediacentre/pdfs/biog_kk.pdf, 0 March 00, par.1.


Doordan, Dennis, Twentieth � Century Architecture (New York Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 00) 15


Huang, Christopher. “Nakagin Capsule Tower.” Precedents. Online. Available http//www.arch.mcgill.ca/prof/mellin/arch671/winter001/xhuang/drm/prec.htm, 4 March 00, par. 1.


“Nara City Museum of Photography” Kisho Kurokawa architect & associates. Online. Available http//www.kisho.co.jp/WorksAndProjects/Works/nara/index.html, 4 March 00, par. 6.


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What is the Economic Problem?

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The economic problem occurs when society has unlimited wants, yet limited resources available. This problem affects the economies of individuals, businesses and governments. Wants can be defined as materialistic desires of individuals or the community, which are desired because they give utility. Resources enable an economy to produce, and include the four factors of production land, labour, capital and enterprise. These means fulfilling our desires are limited, so not all our wants can be satisfied with the limited resources available. Subsequently we must choose between them, and make choices in which our higher preference wants are given priority, and others are left unsatisfied.


Whenever we satisfy one want, we are foregoing the opportunity of another alternative want. Therefore the real cost of fulfilling our want is not the money we pay for it, but the alternate want that we give up. This cost is known as the opportunity cost, or economic/real cost, as it is sometimes referred to as. Opportunity costs can be applied to the individual, business firms and the government. The economic choices of today affect tomorrow¡¦s economic outcomes. When we choose to satisfy a want today, another want may not be fulfilled in the future.


There are different types of economies, which range between a market economy and a centrally planned economy. In a market economy, individuals and private firms make all major economic decisions. Wealth is obtained through their business activities without government intervention, and this type of system is sometimes known as free enterprise or capitalist. Characteristics of a market economy include


„h Consumer sovereignty by the price mechanism- consumer sovereignty means that consumers will ultimately decide what goods and services will be produced by choosing which wants they wish to satisfy. Consumers wish to buy at the lowest price possible, whereas businesses want to sell at the highest price possible. The price mechanism brings supply and demand together to determine the market price for each good and service.


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„h Private ownership of property- individuals have the right to own the means of production and acquire wealth from these resources.


„h Freedoms of enterprise- individuals have the right to use their resources as they choose.


„h Competition- this means that there is a large number of buyers and sellers, guaranteeing that no one buyer or seller is big enough to influence the market price and take advantage over others in the economy.


Under the system of a centrally planned economy, only central government planners make economic decisions, and there is a lack of individual choice to influence the economy. Public ownership of factors of production allows the government to allocate resources, however they wish. Some centrally planned economies in previous times include China and Russia, but no such economy exists today.


Australia, like many other economies, is a mixed economy. There are market forces that influence demand and supply, but also government interventions to solve and reduce the effects of various economic problems. The government provides most basic health, education and welfare services, however most decisions are left to the market. Health care is provided in the form of Medicare, and free education is offered to all from kindergarten to Year 1. The government also acts as a provider for people such as pensioners, and allocate allowances to the disabled. Examples include Family Tax Benefit and Youth Allowance. These provisions by the government ensure that people can receive more resources, reduce spending in education and health, and thus use their money elsewhere and help circulate and increase economic prosperity.





The economy does not always run freely, competitively and in the best interest of the economy as a whole. Therefore the government must avoid monopoly in the economy and enable consumers the sovereignty that is necessary. There is substantial competition in key areas such as transport, telecommunications, electricity and gas. It is a highly open economy with very low barriers to trade and investment. National competition policies are placed in order to avoid oligopoly and producer sovereignty. An example of the Australian government trying to avoid monopoly and oligopoly within the economy is allowing consumers to choose their gas, lighting and electricity providers. This action by the government ensures consumer sovereignty.





Australia has a comprehensive economic policy framework, with a sound, stable and competitive institutional structure. It also has a system of very prudential regulations. APRA (Australian Prudential Regulation Authority) is the prudential regulator of banks, insurance companies, superannuation funds, credit unions, and building societies. They are concerned with the provision of efficiency and competitiveness in the Australian economy. Economic management is affected by decisions made through The Reserve Bank, and monitoring policies regarding unemployment and interest rates. APRA is accountable to the Commonwealth Parliament as well as the regulated industries. The government also intervenes by subsidising tariffs, and provides regulations to prevent exploitation. The ACCC (Australian Competition and Consumer Commission) is the body responsible for enhancing the welfare of Australians through the promotion of competition and fair-trading as well as provisions for consumer protection. Governments can legislate to ban products, which are deemed undesirable to ensure safety standards.





The government also intervenes in distribution of output (income) because the free market may not necessarily provide a socially fair distribution. There are two ways


1. Transfer payments- income is distributed by taxing people on higher incomes and transferring the money to people who don¡¦t contribute to the production process.


. Progressive Income Tax- higher income earners pay proportionally more tax than low-income earners.


A market economy is subject to the fluctuations of the business cycle, therefore the government intervenes through implementation of macroeconomic (counter cyclical) policies. The Reserve Bank Australia (RBA) plays a large role in regulating the Australian economy. Its main function is monetary policy, where it tries to achieve low and stable inflation over the medium term. The RBA¡¦s aims are to stabilise the currency, maintain full employment, and to maintain economic prosperity and welfare of the people.


Australia¡¦s current government budget is in surplus with the current account deficit being largely the outcome of private sector transactions. The RBA has a powerful influence on interest rates, which affect economic activity via a number of mechanisms. They can affect savings and investment behaviour, the spending behaviour of households, the supply of credit, asset prices and the exchange rate, all of which affect the level of aggregate demand.


In conclusion the government leaves the market forces to its own will but the government will intervene and act as a provider, regulator and controller. Through policies created, the government can intervene to affect the operations of free market forces, in order to decrease the economic problem and increase economic prosperity in Australia.


www.abs.gov.au


www.ato.gov.au


www.cis.org.au


www.union.network.org


The Market Economy, By Tim Dixon


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Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are Dead

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Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are Dead


Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are Dead, written in the 160s by playwright Tom Stoppard, is a transforation of Shakespeare’s Hamlet. Stoppard effectively relocates Shakespeare’s play to the 160s by reassessing and revaluating the themes and characters of Hamlet and considering core values and attitudes of the 160s- a time significantly different to that of Shakespeare. He relies on the audience’s already established knowledge of Hamlet and transforms a revenge tragedy into an Absurd drama, which shifts the focus from royalty to common man. Within Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are Dead, Stoppard uses a play within a play to blur the line that defines reality, and in doing so creates confusion both onstage- with his characters, and offstage- with the audience. Using these techniques, Stoppard is able make a statement about his society, creating a play that reflected the attitudes and circumstances of the 160s, therefore making it more relevant and relatable to the audiences of that time.


The transformation of a Shakespearean Revenge Tragedy into an Absurd Drama means a considerable change in structure from a well-structured and rigid format, into a chaotic and formless play. Stoppard deliberately alters the configuration of the play to create a confusing atmosphere, which creates the exact feeling of society in the 160s- no definites or certainties to rely on. Language portrays meaning in both plays- the language of Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are Dead differs to that of Hamlet. Stoppard employs meaningless colloquial exchanges, such as Rosencrantz and Guildenstern’s question game, which strongly contrasts to Shakespearean elaborate and poetic verse, as seen throughout the play, especially in Hamlet’s soliloquies- “There is special providence in the fall of a sparrow.” This is thoughtful and philosophical. Stoppard’s use of language further extends the idea of purposelessness and insignificance.


Stoppard brings two relatively insignificant characters for Hamlet into focus in Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are Dead. Common man into the ‘spotlight’, as he represented the majority of society- 160s’ audiences were interested in characters that they could empathize with and relate to. By focussing on Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, Stoppard brings offstage Hamlet onstage. This change in orientation gives audiences a new perspective on Hamlet and a different interpretation of Shakespeare’s most famous play.


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The themes of Man’s ability to take action, as well as Destiny and Death in Hamlet, are maintained in Stoppard’s play, but he brings into the text an awareness and understanding of his society, and through these themes, explores different values that were inherent in the 160s. Man’s ability to take action is an individual’s willingness to accept responsibility for his actions and take control of his life. In Hamlet, Shakespeare uses his characters to show the power a man has when he accepts his purpose, which was preordained by God. Stoppard revises this Elizabethan value through the portrayal of his characters Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, who refuse to take an active role in the running of their life. He reflects on the differences between the societies, and demonstrates the confusion and conflicting beliefs and attitudes of the 160s as shown in Stoppard’s characters that, out of complete confusion do not understand the ultimate reality of their conditions and therefore do not know how to act. Their refusal to act is the cause of their downfall.


Stoppard portrays Destiny in the 160s, as a higher power that cannot be altered, emphasizing lack of will individuals had in the 160s. The turmoil and shattered beliefs of the time meant that people felt defenceless and incapable of taking charge- they thrive on external gratification to provide direction and purpose. As Guildenstern questions this authority, “Who Decides?”, the Player rightly answers him- “Decides? It is written.” The title chosen by Stoppard also tells audiences the fate of these two helpless characters. We are told from the very beginning that these two are destined to die. It is just before this death that they realise that “there must have been a moment, at the beginning, where we could have said- no.” However, it is too late. Stoppard acknowledges Shakespeare’s belief that the acceptance of fate empowers an individual, but he chooses to explore the consequences of refusing one’s given purpose- the likely choice in the 160s.


Death in Hamlet is given significance and value due to Elizabethan society’s strong ties to religion. The uncertainty of the afterlife made the death mysterious, but also greatly feared. In Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are Dead, however, since life is seen as purposeless and directionless, death is seen as rather insignificant. The value of life after the Second World War was questioned and eventually lost. This triviality was communicated by Stoppard as simply disappearing- characters were no longer material or existing.


The play within the play is also utilised effectively by Stoppard to make a statement about his society. In Hamlet, there is clear distinction between reality and acting but this is not case in Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are Dead. By obscuring the audience’s perception of what is real and what is all an act, he introduces the question of whether man is simply playing a role. Identities and purposes blur and one cannot tell whether a character is genuine or acting. This is shown when Guildenstern appears to have killed the Player. Audiences, as well as the character are fooled into thinking that the stabbing was real, but once again, we are mistaken. By playing with reality, Stoppard casts doubt on audience’s judgement, forcing us to question our own abilities.


Stoppard takes advantage of audiences’ knowledge of Hamlet, when using the plot of Shakespeare’s play as the driving force of Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are Dead. An understanding of Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are Dead relies on this basis, to establish a greater awareness and comprehension of 160s society. Without this assumed knowledge of Hamlet, one cannot truly appreciate Stoppard’s play, which informs society about their nature and shortcomings.


Tom Stoppard is able to make clear statements about the society that has influenced him to create Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are Dead. He essentially takes elements of Shakespeare’s Hamlet and transforms them to make a judgement on society. By shifting the focus of his play to common man, he is able to convey values that are relevant to the 160s. He develops characters that allow audiences to gain a new perspective on Shakespeare’s play and acquire a more informed perception of themselves. Stoppard makes a statement about 160s society’s lack of direction and pleads viewers to take an active role in improving their own situation.





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Nike

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Nike


Nike uses a global and hybrid approach to worldwide advertising. With this method they are able to present a consistent brand image and message throughout all regions. They do however, allow for some regionalization of the advertising to appeal to the local people and culture as well as have differences within their overall advertising to attract different market segments. With this global strategy to advertising and brand management they are able to reach consistency, they also must deal with problems on the world stage.


Nike has a very large advertising budget. According to a review of advertising spending by Adweek, Nike led their category for spending. Nike is a world-recognized brand, with most people recognizing the Nike swoosh. They manage the global brand with similar advertising around the world and with common themes such as “Just do it!” and “Play”. They seek visuals that translate across cultures and language. With simple tag lines like “Play” their message is easily translated with little variation across language. All people understand play and can remember the joy of play as children. “Just do it” is similar although perhaps slightly more complex. It can, however, be translated simply without much being lost in the translation.


The visuals too are easy to understand regardless of culture. Recent commercials have a crazy chicken chasing a man. The man, due to his superior Nike shoes is able to escape the chicken. The voiceover in all languages talks about how no one, except for this person, can escape the chicken. Other recent commercials show people able to run and jump similar to a superhero � of course, due to their shoes. These visuals are able to create interest in the shoes and make people want to perform like those in the ads.


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Another common visual for the Nike commercials is the sports icon. They will use people � generally men � that have a large base of recognition. Similar to the “be like Mike” campaign using Michael Jordan, Nike has used and currently uses US football stars like Donovan McNabb and golf pros like Tiger Woods for their golf line. For sports starts like Tiger Woods that have worldwide recognition, they will use them throughout many regions. This is, however, one area that Nike will regionalize for local impact and acceptance. An example of this is creating shoes specific for the world-renowned soccer star Ronaldo to use in the World Cup. Although Nike was not a sponsor of the World Cup, they received a lot of recognition and people often thought it was a sponsor due to their advertising.


The use of a sports hero has worked well for men’s products propelling Nike to their current position. As Nike wants to expand to women’s products, they are evaluating this strategy as they have discovered it works less with women. They are redefining the message for the female audience using common themes and visuals like normal women doing extraordinary things. Thus, within a region, they will not have two different messages but they will present those messages differently to fit the audience.


As a global brand, Nike does face some issues. With consistency of image, they also deal with an issue that can tarnish the brand on a world stage. For example, Nike received bad press for using sweatshops in Indonesia to manufacture the shoes. Articles and outrage showed up in many countries around the world creating the need for a global response to the issue.





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complement

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Is there any information that you want the admission committee know in considering your application


The last thing I want to mention is my GMAT score (total 60, 80% below). Since I did not get a high score, not even an average score, I’d like to address something else to strengthen my application. First, The GMAT score is not predictive of my ability to perform. I have excellent academic records -- GPA .8 at XXX University and 8.8 out of at XXX University. Furthermore, Matriculation in two master programs of different majors reflects my academic potential and achievement. Secondly, I have demonstrated leadership and management talent with my solid professional track records and experience in my career in sales and marketing. And I have showed my strong motivation to be a business leader by dedicating to my long-term goal. That’s why I can endure worth sacrifice, hard work, and even leaving my family. Therefore, I hope this weakness, a low score on the GMAT, may be offset by strengths in other area.


The last thing I want to mention is my GMAT score (total 60, 80% below). Since I did not get a high score, not even an average score, I’d like to address something else to strengthen my application. First, The GMAT score is not predictive of my ability to perform. I have excellent academic records -- GPA .8 at XXX University and 8.8 out of at XXX University. Furthermore, Matriculation in two master programs of different majors reflects my academic potential and achievement. Secondly, I have demonstrated leadership and management talent with my solid professional track records and experience in my career in sales and marketing. And I have showed my strong motivation to be a business leader by dedicating to my long-term goal. That’s why I can endure worth sacrifice, hard work, and even leaving my family. Therefore, I hope this weakness, a low score on the GMAT, may be offset by strengths in other area.


The last thing I want to mention is my GMAT score (total 60, 80% below). Since I did not get a high score, not even an average score, I’d like to address something else to strengthen my application. First, The GMAT score is not predictive of my ability to perform. I have excellent academic records -- GPA .8 at XXX University and 8.8 out of at XXX University. Furthermore, Matriculation in two master programs of different majors reflects my academic potential and achievement. Secondly, I have demonstrated leadership and management talent with my solid professional track records and experience in my career in sales and marketing. And I have showed my strong motivation to be a business leader by dedicating to my long-term goal. That’s why I can endure worth sacrifice, hard work, and even leaving my family. Therefore, I hope this weakness, a low score on the GMAT, may be offset by strengths in other area.


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A story about growing up

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The Catcher in the Rye is a story about growing up. It explores all of the obstacles that we all face while reaching adulthood. The triumphs, the happiness, the heartbreak and the sadness. We follow the main character Holden throughout his journey into adulthood. But this journey is not so much in the sense that Holden literarily grows up but he become more aware of the things that are happening around him. He doesn’t mature much physically, but we witness his mind completely mature to that of an adult by the end of the novel. Although Holden’s rise to adulthood progresses slowly throughout the novel it is almost sprung on him right at the very end where he painfully witnesses something that he thought would never happen to him. Growing up means letting go, and for this is no exception for Holden.


At the beginning of the novel Holden’s mindset is that of a rebellious teenager.


Also we notice early in the novel that Holden is a very conceited and confident young man. We first begin to notice this then when he states “I was the goddamn manager of the fencing team. Very big deal.” (Salinger, ) This shows that although Holden may be a very modest character in the beginning he is also a very conceited character. Holden personifies the popular quote “Extreme vanity sometimes hides under the garb of ultra modesty.” Holden’s rebellious side seems to be the driving factor behind him. He has gotten himself kicked out of many schools, and just recently kicked out his Pencey Prep. His rebellious side seems to be the most powerful side of him right up until the end where it is snubbed out along with all his childhood mentality.


The fact that Holden believes that everyone is a bunch of “phonies” is a very childish way of thinking. Although in most cases it does prove true, the fact that Holden actually labels people and things as phonies seems to be a way to keep himself from being hurt. This goes hand and hand with Holdens way of always finding things wrong in other people. He is always picking out the bad things just so he can actually call them a “phony.” He automatically associates skill with arrogance, as well. For example when Holden is in Ernie’s and he states “It was so phony - him being such a snob and all.”(Salinger, 84). This may show that Holden has had prior bad meetings with arrogant people. But it also shows a childish way of releasing anger over his jealousy of their skill. As well, Holden uses this notion to release frustration and tension, for example when he lashes out in frustration or anger he usually mentions someone being a phony. This “phony” notion seems to serve him well until the point where he realizes that he really doesn’t have any close friends. There are only three that are mentioned. Two are directly mentioned, as being friends but the third is more of a mentor and a figure that Holden looks up to. These three characters are Phoebe, his little sister, Jean Gallagher, and his mentor (although Holden would never admit it) Mr. Antolini.


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His fight with Stradlater is a very good example of how much of a child Holden is at this point in the novel. With the mention of what seems to be a high school sweetheart, from Stradlater, Holden immediately becomes very upset. Although Salinger doesn’t actually write that Holden is upset we get the impression from when he says “Boy; I nearly dropped dead when he said that.”(Salinger, 1) or “Boy was I excited I really was.” (Salinger, 1) When Stradlater returns Holden is just waiting for something to trigger his pent up frustration about Jean. Holden quizzes him and then explodes in a rage of emotion. The fight is not so much centered on Jean, although that is what triggers it, but on everything that Holden has suppressed and is frustrated about. Immediately after the fight Holden goes and sulks in the bathroom. Proving yet again that he has a lot of growing to do.


Although his move from Pencey Prep into the real world was filled with even more frustration and confusion, the move was a smart one, because through all the pain he gained maturity. We notice the subtle changes in his attitude when he gets onto the train heading home, and a mature lady strikes up a conversation with Holden. He directly lies to her about his age, his name and what he’s studying for. Although at first glance this may show childish dishonesty but if we look more in depth at it we can see that Holden is lying because he wants to seem more mature. That’s what he’s striving to become. But although he is striving to become more mature, his lies are becoming more and more bizarre. Which leads the reader into believing that although he is striving to become more mature his mind is still that of a child.


Holden’s return to New York marks a complete turn around for his mentality. As soon as he gets to New York he wants to strike out on his own and see how that goes. His sexual thoughts begin with the woman on the train, and continue on to when he calls the women up for sex in the hotel. Also his thinking changes from completely thinking about school matters to matters of sex. He states “I was feeling pretty horny” (Salinger, 6) and then proceeds to phone the women for sex. But when she arrives he is too nervous to do anything therefore proving that although his mind is slowly changing from a young adolescent to almost pre-adulthood he still is retaining some of those childish fears. As well the nightclub offers more insight into his changing mind where he attempts to actually court a young woman. He seems a bit too expectant and confident in his skills and passes off the girl’s un-interest as ignorance. He still possesses the confidence of a young man who hasn’t realized the harsh reality of the world. “What they did, though, the three of them, when I did it, they started giggling like morons.” (Salinger, 70)


The end of the book shows a significant growth in Holden’s mindset. In the beginning Holden is quick to condemn and call everyone around him phony but by the ending there is evidence that he is becoming less judgmental and almost more open to people. The ordeal with Mr. Antolini shows that Holden is determined to not make any conclusions or new opinions about Mr. Antolini. Although Holden does call Mr. Antolini a pervert, he rushes out with such an intensity that it almost seems that he truly doesn’t want to believe that his mentor, his idol, is something that he’s morally against. This is a turning point in the story where Holden’s innocent mind is shattered and he comes to a realization that things aren’t at all what they appear to be.


As well his mind has changed from being adolescent to that of an adult when he scratches out the obscenities written at Phoebe’s school. This contributes to the idea he’s had throughout the whole novel as being the catcher in the rye. The person who catches the children who accidentally falls of the cliff of innocence into adulthood. Although Holden’s journey to adulthood was painful it offers insight not only into Holden’s mind, but also into our own as well.








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Honda

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Karan Kukreja


S.I.D # 054


Principles of Management


Dr. B. Odejar


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0th June 00


International Case 4 � 1


Honda Moves to the United States


1. Why did Honda build a plant in the United States (what were the objectives)? How is the plant in the United States affecting the company in Japan? What problems or advantages might the US operation give Honda in the future?


• Honda wanted to debunk the claim of the auto industry that “nobody can make an economy car in the United States at a profit”. It had a relatively small market share in the Japaneese car market and it needed an outlet to grow. These were the main reasons for Honda to start a manufacturing plant in the United States. As it is evident, they wanted to introduce an economy car to the US market and still make good profit percentages. Besides this during the early 170’s the gas prices were very high and so they wanted to introduce a fuel efficient car at an economical price.


International businesses engage in transactions across national boundaries. These transactions include transfer of goods, services, technology, managerial knowledge, and capital to other countries. Unifying influences occur when the parent company in Japan shares technical and managerial know-how, thus assisting the host company in the development of human and material resources. Moreover, the parent corporation and the firm in the host country may find it advantageous to be integrated into a global organizational structure. Being an MNC, it can take advantage of business opportunities in many different countries. It can also raise money for its operations throughout the world. Moreover, it benefits by being able to establish production facitlities where their products can be produced more efficiently and effectively. It can have access to natural resources and materials that may not be available to domestic firms. Finally, they can recruit managers and other personnel from a worldwide labor pool.


The advantages of an international operation must be weighted against the challenges and risks asociated with operating in foreign environments. One problem is the increasing nationalism. In addition countries have not only become aware of their natural resources but also become more skilled in international negotiations. Finally, Honda must maintain good relations with the United States, a task that may prove difficult because governments frequently change and corporations must deal with, and adapt to, these changes.


. Why was Honda able to build economy cars in the United States when American car manufacturers could not? What advantages does Honda have over the American companies?


• Honda was a Japaneese firm, and the Japanese culture is based more on team work rather than US culture, which focuses more on individual achievements. The US automobile manufacturing plants are far more automated than Honda’s plant in the US. This requires them to pay a lot of money in training the workers to learn how to use the machinery. This adds to the cost of production and hence the final retail price of the car is very high. In Honda’s case, they have a plan that is less automated and the employees are taught by professionals trained in Japan, how to assemble cars in teams in an assembly line production. This reduces the cost of training the employees in learning how to use complex machinery and hence reduces the overheads per worker. Hence, reducing the cost of production which enables them to price their cars lower than the American made automobiles.


Honda provides it workers with stocks in the company. They believe that all employees are equally important. All the workers are involved in the decision making process, which makes them more committed to the company and gives them a sense of belongingness and importance. The job satisfaction amongst the employees is very high. The workers are very proud of their work and they like working at Honda even tough they receive lower wages than other U.S. workers. Since the workers receive stock options and are happy with their jobs and accept lower pays, the overall costs decrease and hence the company is able to meet its goal of providing economy cars in the US, and still make a fair share of profits. In contrast, the US managers have been accused several time of making decision even before the problem has been discussed. This causes the employees to loose interest in the company and they begin working only for financial reasons and not for the better of the company.


American car companies generally concentrate on building “muscle cars”, i.e. cars that have a lot of power, and are big in size. This causes the cars to be of higher prices and doesn’t suit the needs of the customers, who are the young professionals who prefer smaller, compact cars. In this way Honda’s existing compact-car production lines appeal to the growing number of young professionals. The Japaneese manufacturers concentrate in performance and fuel efficiency which had helped them gain an edge of the US automobile companies. Moreover, as a Multi-National Corporation, the profits made in the US are only a fraction of the profits made by the company as a whole and so the company is very profitable and appealing to the investors and shareholders.





. How much of Honda’s success is due to its policies? How much is due to non-managerial factors?


• Honda attributes its success to workers who are willing to work hard for the company. But actually, it is the management policies of Honda that have created such a win-win situation. Involving the workers in the entire decision making process and reaching the final decision using consensus (i.e. all the workers agree to the decision) has played an important role in the success of the organization. Providing the workers with stock options rather than high wages is an effective method to gain employee commitment, as the employees will work harder to increase the share value which in turn increases their returns on the stocks they hold. These are the effective managerial practices that have helped Honda reach where they are today in the US market.


Besides the effective and unique managerial policies, there are certain non-managerial factors also that have attributed to Honda’s immense success. Firstly, they didn’t rely heavily on the use of automated machines for the production of their cars, which helped in reducing costs. Secondly, they stresses on team work rather than individual efforts, which reduced training costs and increased employee efficiency. Thirdly, they concentrated on the growing segment of the market, i.e. the young professionals, and produced more compact and fuel efficient cars rather than the large and powerful American cars. Fourthly, they helped Japaneese suppliers setup plants near their production facility, so that they could reduce their inventory and whenever they needed parts they could just order it from next door. This further reduced transportation costs and overall costs. Finally, to maintain a good image in the American market, they sold not only the economical compact cars but also luxury cars under different names and dealerships. This helped increase the net amount of profits, and further lowered the retail price of the compact cars.


In conclusion one can say that Honda’s success must be attributed to its good balance between the managerial and non managerial practices. They have revolutionized the auto industry and have debunked the claim that “nobody can make an economy car in the United States at a profit.”





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BMW

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THE COMPANY


BMW Group worldwide mission statement is To be the most successful premium manufacturer in the industry.


BMW (Bavarian Motor Works) began life as a manufacturer of aircraft engines during World War 1 when it built a reputation of reliability and excellence.


In 1, BMW built its first motorcycle and in 18, its first motorcar - a version of the Austin Seven built under license


Buy BMW term paper


The famous white and blue symbol of BMW stems from the companys origins as aero plane engine manufacturers. The BMW Company was formed in 117, from the merger of two small aero engine makers.


Many aircraft were painted in regional colors and those of the Bavarian Luftwaffe were the Bayern white and blue.


It is said that the pilots view through the propeller was one of white and blue alternating segments.


Through the years this image has become stylized into solid quarters of blue and white to declare the identity of todays BMW cars and motorcycles. Since the end of the 170s BMW has worked to create a standardized international image in terms of statement and presentation so that today whenever people encounter the companys symbols they recognize BMW.


BMW is a major company in the UK employing over 7500 people.


• BMW (GB) Ltd commenced operations in January 180 and is responsible for the sales and marketing of BMW cars and motorcycles, and MINI cars in the UK. 15 dealers are franchised to sell BMW cars, of which 148 sell MINIs. 7 dealers are franchised to sell BMW motorcycles.


• Oxford plant is one of the worlds most modern and advanced car factories currently producing 10,000 MINIs a year for worldwide market.


• Hams Hall plant, near Birmingham produces BMW four-cylinder petrol engines, employing revolutionary Valvetronic technology and was the first BMW engine plant to be built outside Germany and Austria.


• The new manufacturing plant and Head Office for Rolls-Royce motor cars is based at Goodwood, West Sussex.


• BMW Financial Services, Hook offers a broad range of finance and insurance products for consumers and businesses. Also based at Hook is Alphabet (GB) Ltd, BMWs multi-make contract hire and leasing company.


OPERATIONS


BMW Group products are in great demand worldwide. The BMW Group range includes a variety of performance cars and motorcycles (see below).


At the beginning of 00 BMW Group will assume full brand responsibility for Rolls-Royce motor cars and complete its brand spectrum in the absolute top segment of the car market.


Production plants


Berlin, Germany


Dingolfing, Germany


Einsenach, Germany


Hams Hall, UK


Landshut, Germany


Munich, Germany


Oxford, UK


Regensburg, Germany


Rosslyn, South Africa


Spartanburg, USA


Steyr, Austria


Swindon, UK


Tritec Motors Ltda


Wackersdorf, Germany


Assembly Plants


Cairo, Egypt


Hanio, Vietnam


Jakarta, Indonesia


Kaliningrad, Russia


Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia


Manila, Philippines


Rayong, Thailand


Toluca, Mexico


BMW believe the only way for a successful car maker to hold its own in a highly competitive future is through superior innovations. As at the end of 001 BMW Group employed more than 8000 people worldwide within the research & development network and invested over €.1 billion.


In late 187 the company centralised its R&D resources and opened the BMW Research and Engineering Centre (FIZ) in Munich, Germany.


Employing engineers, designers, model builders, computer experts and scientists of various disciplines FIZ co-ordinates and optimises research activities across the group to create the BMW cars of the future.


Innovative technologies, covering all aspects of the car include


the use of new materials


light-weight structures


mechatronics


communication technologies


The best approved designs are developed to Series readiness in BMWs pilot plant, where all conceivable tests and trials including acoustic, climate and crash are carried out.


The Centre has proved so successful that it has set the benchmark for other car manufacturers.


BMW have also responded to the current trend taking place in the car industry to replace mechanical parts with electronically controlled components and at the end of 001 opened a new subsidiary BMW Car IT GmbH.


BMW Car IT GmbH allows the BMW Group to expand its activities in the area of automobile related software and IT development.


All BMW Group research and development departments have a clear objective advanced product design with minimum environmental impact.


ANALYSIS OF LIQUIDITY


Ratios that show the relationship of a firm’s cash and other current assets to its current liabilities, and thus its ability to meet maturing debts. Two commonly used liquidity ratios are the current ratio and quick ratio.


CURRENT RATIO


This ratio is calculated by dividing current assets by current liabilities. It indicates the extent to which current liabilities are covered by those assets expected to be converted to cash in the near future.


Current Ratio = Current Assets / Current Liabilities


Year Current Ratio


18 1.7


1 1.5


000 1.44


001 0.64


00 1.1


After carefully reviewing the current ratio of the company for the past five years, there has been a constant decline in the liquidity between 18 and 000 and it hit its lowest ratio in the year 001. This implies that the company’s ability to pay off current liabilities using the current resources was below the satisfactory mark as the desired current ratio should be at least 1. In the year 00, the company’s liquidity has increased by a significant amount which implies that the liquidity is beginning to rise.


ASSET TURNOVER RATIO


This ratio is calcularted by deducting inventories from current assets and dividing the remainder by current liabilities. This measures the firms’ ability to pay off short term obligations without relying on the scale of inventories.


ATR = Liquid Assets / Liabilities


Year Liquid Ratio


18 .7


1 .08


000 1.1


001 .8


00 .


The trend line of the asset turnover ratio is very unstable as it is declining between the years 18 and 1 and then suddenly shoots up to a high of 1.1. This implies that there might have been a change in the management during these years and the new management has been able to manage the assets better than the older one. But then in the next two years there is yet again a gradual decline in the ration which suggests that the company’s liquidity is not up to the mark and they need to make necessary changes to manage their assets in a better manner.


ANALYSIS OF ASSET MANAGEMENT


A set of ratios that measure how effectively a firm is managing its assets. These ratios include inventory turnover , days sales outstanding, fixed assets turnover, and total assets turnover.


INVENTORY TURNOVER RATIO


This ratio is calculated by dividing sales by inventories. It measures how quickly the inventories are converted to sales.


ITR = Cost of goods sold / Average Inventory


Year Inventory Turnover Ratio


18 8.45


1 .5


000 11.0


001 .7


00 8.7


The past trends show that the inventory turnover ratio has been fairly good. It has been increasing from 18 to 1 which implies that the company is utilizing its resources at an optimum level. It begins declining at a minimal rate in the next two years but these could be a result of a decline in the world economy due to some mishaps. This could also be a result of non-moving inventories or having excessive stocks of inventories. One can conclude that this company has a good turnover ratio and hence its asset management is efficient.


RECIEVABLE TURNOVER RATIO


This ratio measures how much of the sales are on credit and is calculated by diving the net credit sales by the average receivables.


RTR = Net Credit Sales/Average Receivables


Year Receivable Turnover Ratio


18 .7


1 .


000 1.56


001 1.6


00 1.54


In the years 18 and 1 the company has a high receivable turnover ratio which implies that the resources and inventories are being converted to cash more frequently. In the next three years BMW had introduced a new credit policy of easy financing due to which there has been a decline in the ratio. This has been a result of offering credit for longer periods ( financing cars for -4 years) and a fear of creditors not paying the payments on time.


FIXED ASSETS TURNOVER RATIO


The fixed assets turnover ratio measures how effectively the firm uses its plant and equipment. It is the ratio of sales to fixed assets.


Fixed Assets Turnover Ratio = Sales/Net Fixed Assets


Year Fixed Asset Turnover Ratio


18 4.1


1 .


000 4.55


001 .08


00 .5


After reviewing the past financial statements and calculating the fixed asset turnover ratio one can notice that there is an increase in the turnover ratio between 18 and 000. This shows that the asset utilization was efficient. This could be because the inventories were moving faster. After the September 11 incident there has been a constant decline in sales and hence the ratio has become lowers. This is because there was les demand, there was high inflation and they had more than the required amount invested in fixed assets.


ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL LEVERAGE


The extent to which a firm uses debt financing or financial leverage has three important implications (1) by raising funds through debt, stockholders can maintain control of a firm while limiting their investment. () Creditors look to the equity or owner supplied funds to provide margins of safety. () If the firm earns more on investments financed with borrowed funds then it pays in interest, the return on the owner’s capital is leveraged.


DEBT � EQUTIY RATIO


Debt � Equity Ratio = Long Term Debt/ Stockholders Equity


Year Debt-Equity Ratio


18 1.1


1 .64


000 1.6


001 1.6


00 1.15


The debt-equity ratio has been fairly constant through the years 18 and 00. The company has had its ups and downs but its ability to pay off debts has been more or less the same and hence we can conclude that there is sufficient protection to the creditors.


DEBT RATIO


The ratio of debt to total assets, generally called the debt ratio measures the percentage of funds provided by the creditors.


Debt Ratio = Total Debt/ Total Assets


Year Debt Ratio


18 .56


1 .5


000 .65


001 1.0


00 .57


The past trends of the Debt � Ratio shows that company has been financing 50% of its assets from financial institutions and the remaining 50% comes from the stock holders. Since this ratio has been more or less the same for all the years one can say that its financial position is pretty strong.


INTEREST COVERAGE RATIO


A ratio whose numerator includes all cash flows available to meet fixed financial charges and whose denominator includes all fixed financial charges.


Interest Coverage Ratio = EBIT/Interest Expense


Year Interest Coverage Ratio


18 .47


1 1.4


000 0


001 0


00 0


In the year 18 the interest coverage ratio is below one which implies that the company’s ability to pay interest wasn’t good. Same goes for the year 1 where its ability to pay interest was doubtful. These were the only years the company’s financial leverage was low. In the next years they had no interest expense which implies that the company had not much debt financing and hence they didn’t have to pay any interest.


ANALYSIS OF PROFITABILITY


A group of ratios that shows the combined effects of liquidity, asset management, and debt on operating results. Profitability is the net result of a number of policies and decisions. They include the profit margin on sales, the basic earning power ratio, the return on total assets and the return on common equity.


GROSS PROFIT MARGIN RATIO


This ratio helps calculate the percentage of gross profit on sales.


Gross Profit Margin Ratio = (Gross Margin/Net Sales)100


Year Gross Profit Margin Ratio


18 16.04%


1 16.40%


000 .70%


001 5.0%


00 5.40%


After reviewing the past 5 years financial statements it is clearly evident that the company has been making a constant increase in profits. This implies that the percentage of gross margin on sales has been increasing constantly and the company is making a good percentage of profits.


PROFIT MARGIN RATIO


This ratio measures net income per dollar of sales; it is calculated by dividing the net income by sales.


Profit Margin Ratio = (Net Income/Net Sales)100


Year Profit Margin Ratio


18 1.4%


1 -7.%


000 .5%


001 4.85%


00 4.78%


On the average the company’s profit margin ratio has been increasing constantly from 18 to 00. This implies that there is a good amount of profit generated from the sales. Further this says the cost of production is being managed well and is not very high and the sales have also been good.


RETURN ON ASSETS


The ratio of net income to total assets measures the return on total assets (ROA) after interests and taxes.


Return on assets = (Net Income + Interest Expenses)/Average Assets


Year Return on Assets


18 .6%


1 -5.47%


000 .45%


001 .64%


00 .64%


After reviewing the past 5 years financial statements and calculating the return on assets has been increasing. The high return results is because of the companies high basic earning power plus the low interest costs resulting from the below average use of debt, both of which causes its net income to be relatively high.


RETURN ON STOCKHOLDERS EQUITY


The ratio of net income to stockholders equity; measures the rate of return on stockholders investment.


Return on stockholders equity = (Net Income/ Average Stockholders Equity)100


Year Return on Stockholders Equity


18 7.17%


1 -6.5%


000 1.81%


001 17.%


00 14.56%


Stockholders invest to get a return on their money and this ration tells us how well they are doing in an accounting sense. BMW percent return is pretty high between 18 and 00. This is because of the company’s efficient use of debt.


RETURN ON COMMON EQUITY


The ratio of net income to common equity; it measures the rate of return on common stockholders investment.


Return on Common Equity = ((Net Income � Preferred Dividend)/Average Common Stock)100


Year Return On Common Equity


18 7.17%


1 -6.5%


000 4.6%


001 11.01%


00 14.56%


BMW percent return is pretty high between 18 and 00. This is because of the company’s efficient use of debt. This implies that the common stock holders are kept happy because they are getting good returns on the money that has been invested. All in all the company’s profitability is on the rise.


EARNINGS PER SHARE


This ratio measures how much the investors have earned on the par value of the common stock.


EPS = ((Net Income � Preferred Dividends)/No. Of Outstanding Common Stock)100


Year EPS


18 7.7%


1 -40.77%


000 1.7%


001 1.8%


00 .7%


CONCLUSION


AVERAGE RATIO DECISION





Liquidity









































Please note that this sample paper on BMW is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on BMW, we are here to assist you. Your persuasive essay on BMW will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

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