the bystander effect

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On March 1, 164, as many as thirty-eight peopled witnessed the brutal murder and raping of a woman. Kitty Genovese was on her way home from work when a man came after her and began stabbing her. As she screamed for help the lights from nearby apartments came on and the people watched what was happening down below. Only one guy yelled down “leave that girl alone” causing the stabber to retreat. After the stabber had left, nobody called the cops or came down to help the girl. Kitty then began trying to make her way to her apartment and in the mean time the assailant had come back to finish what he had started. The people around still heard the screams coming from Genovese, but still no one had called the cops. Once the investigation began, cops found that some of the witnesses had assumed that somebody else had called the cops. As the investigation continued, the police were given many excuses from the witnesses but none of them really explained why nobody had called the cops.


The most reasonable assumption for this occurrence is the effect known as the bystander effect. The bystander theory says that as the number of bystanders increases, then the possibility of one helping another decreases. In the case of Kitty Genovese, it was probably unfortunate that so many people had witnessed her murder. If only a few people had witnessed what was occurring, it would have been more likely that someone would have called the police. One witness to Kitty’s murder even said that she wouldn’t let her husband call the police because they had probably already received thirty other calls. This is a perfect example of the bystander effect. She assumed that somebody else had already called the police so in turn she would not let her husband call for help. Researchers Latane and Darely created a study to test the possibility of the bystander


effect in the case of Kitty Genovese. Latane and Darely found that “when people believed they were the only ones listening to the student have the seizure, most of them helped within sixty seconds” (Social Psychology 441). Latane and Darely’s research shows that the bystander effect could have been the reason why nobody called the police to get help for Kitty.


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Another problem with the Kitty Genovese case was that nobody even tried to go down and stop the man from attacking Kitty. The theory known as the diffusion of responsibility is another theory that could have played a big role in the murder of Kitty. Diffusion of responsibility is much like the bystander effect, but the main difference is that as the number of witnesses increases the bystander’s sense of responsibility decreases. This phenomenon is a possibility when explaining the lack of help in Kitty’s murder. There is a possibility that as the people noticed more people watching, they felt that it should be somebody else’s responsibility to go down and help Kitty. One cause of this theory is that if people do not know if someone has already tried to help, they assume someone already has. Because there is a strong possibility that the witnesses to Kitty’s murder had assumed someone else had called for help, Kitty probably would have been luckier if only one or a few people had seen her being attacked.


There is another psychology term that could have played a role in the witness’s efforts, but may not be one of the most probable. This theory, or term, is known as social loafing. Social loafing is the tendency for people to do worse on simple tasks but better on complex tasks when they are in the presence of others and their individual performance can be evaluated. In the case of Kitty Genovese, the witness’s task (calling


the police) could not be recognized. Without knowing what they were thinking, there is a possibility that the witness’s unconsciously thought that if they weren’t the ones to call the police, nobody would know that it was them who didn’t call. Social loafing could be one of the many explanations as to why none of the witnesses called for help.


Although many of these theories seem possible, I believe that the bystander effect played the key role in Kitty’s murder. The bystander effect states that as the number of bystanders who witness an emergency increases, the less likely someone will be to help the victim. In the case of Kitty Genovese, this effect explains why nobody attempted to get help for her. It is ironic that a person would feel safer knowing that there are people around to help them, but as this tragic event has shown, it would be better if there weren’t a lot of people present in an emergency.





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Gun Control

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Gun control, as we know it, consists of the government restricting the ability of individual citizens to purchase weapons. The different types of gun control vary from waiting periods between when you purchase the gun and when you actually get it, background checks so that high-risk people can’t purchase guns through legal channels, and completely banning certain types of guns.


Imagine today, someone coming into your town/city and began taking possession of all your personal fire arms. Just so they could keep you under their control. What would you think or do about this? In 1768 , the British army tried to disarm the new residents of Boston. This process went on until the end of 1775. This took place so that the King of England would not have his invincible army revolted against in the new land to the West. The Bostonians of the new west were resisting taxation and other various grievances resulting in riots. (Halbrook, 1) Therefore, causing the disarmament of the residents of Boston.


In 171 the adoption of the Second Amendment to the Bill of Rights was ratified by all of the 1 colonies after the Constitution ratification. (Halbrook, XI) This Second Amendment gave all citizens of the colonies to bear arms. Whether you are for or against gun control this is a long on going battle that has no end in the near future. In the Second Article to the Bill of Rights states; “A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms.” (Halbrook, VIII) Basically, this states that all citizens have the right to purchase and have a gun in their possession providing certain restrictions. An arm could be a pistol, revolver, shotgun, and rifle, which are classified as firearms or dangerous weapons and require the purchaser of the weapon to be at least eighteen years of age for rifles and shotguns. Purchasers’ of pistols or revolvers must be at least twenty-one years of age and are required to have a county certified permit on record. (SIG ARMS, 1) All these above mentioned hand guns are dangerous weapons but if you use them correctly and for the right purposes, they fully justify their means � to protect or to hunt.


There will always be the mis-user’s of hand guns but is taking away our protection the answer? Many believe it is. They think that taking away the guns will eliminate crime and deaths completely. It is true that taking people’s right to bear arms, will probably increase all these crimes because it leaves the innocent people “sitting ducks.” If the criminal commits one crime and gets away with it easily, they will keep on committing crimes against society. This situation may have a negative effect on a lot of us. Most of those opposed against handguns, or other pistols think it is to easy to get a gun, and that anybody can get one. The qualifications to purchase a handgun are You must be a legal resident of the state for at least six months prior to applying, applicant must be 1 years of age, cannot have been convicted of a felony, cannot be a fugitive from justice, must not be chemically dependent, and finally must be of sound mind. (Section ,1, Internet) All of these are required just to be able to purchase a handgun. To carry a concealed handgun it is much more difficult. For a concealed handgun permit you must have a completed purchase permit, have two recent valid color passport photographs, a certified copy of applicants birth certificate, proof of in state residency, two complete sets of legibly classifiable finger prints of applicant by law enforcement agency (Section , Internet). Lately, laws have changed. In 15 the “Brady Act” passed. It required a seven day waiting period, to purchase a firearm. The “waiting period” method of gun control is a two-step process. The first step in the procedure is that the person wanting a gun goes to his local shop (or calls a reputable mail order outlet) to place the initial order. Then, he/she must wait one to two weeks while the government performs a small background check for past criminal activities, disorderly conduct, or lack of mental/emotional stability. During this time, if the purchaser of the gun wanted the gun for impulse reasons (out of rage), it is hoped that they will not still want to cause bodily harm after a couple of weeks. This method also helps a little in allowing law enforcement to weed out some of the people that might cause trouble with their newly purchased firearm. The problem with this method of gun control is that it stops the ordinary citizen from purchasing a gun on the whim, but it actually protects the common criminal. Underage buyers and other delinquents can purchase mass quantities of weapons through “dummy buyers” that have clean backgrounds. So, if a burglar enters a house with full intention to maim or kill, the innocent victim is simply a victim of a law that supports black market trade. There are over 00 million registered guns in circulation (Larson). The unregistered ones are owned by murderers, rapists, and thieves.


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abc

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Corporate Culture & People � A Critical Analysis


Easy Jets founder appears to believe in the people element of his business. Believing that staff are key to delivering excellence, Easy Jet set-about instilling a work hard play hard culture. Party nights and social events are paramount and a working group set up from the employee base contributed to employee participation and empowerment. Business transparancy is key with employees being allowed to see potentially sensitive documents. The founder believes that culture is created “bit by bit” and that human nature lends itself to competition, people generally want to win in competitive environments.


At this time it is unclear as to whether or not a strategic Human Resources Management plan exists. Such a plan is critical to the success of the organisation. Additionally, competitive factors exist in the form of people. Easy Jet has modelled their organisational structure and culture on USA low cost carrier Southwest Airlines. The founder now finds himself competing against the likes of Ryanair who’s CEO was involved in the running of Southwest and can possible create advantage through knowledge and experience.


Key Success Factors (KSF’s)


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Keniche Ohame of McKinsey & Co. define KSF’s as


“The variables that management can influence through its decisions & that can affect significantly the overall competitive positions of the firms in a given industry…Within any particular industry, they are derived from the interaction of two sets of variables, namely the economic & technological characteristics of the industry…and the competitive weapons on which the various firms in the industry have built their strategies”





Fig 5.0 Identifying Key Success Factors


Prerequisite for Success


What do Customers Want? How does the firm survive Competition?





Analysis of Demand Analysis of Competition


Who are our Customers? What drives competition?


What do they want What are the main dimensions?


How intense is competition?


How to attain advantage


Key Success Factors


Easy Jets Key Success Factors follow


· Ability to meet its mission


· Profitability


· Attain competitive advantage


It would seem that Easy Jet is en-route to meeting its founders mission statement, however, as outlined above, care will be needed to continually adapt to the social, economic, technological and political nuances it is exposed to. Constant re-design of its operations will be required in such a cost sensitive market. It is imperative that its service levels are not compromised by cost.


Profitability in the Airline business is calculated by Grant as operating income per available seat mile (ASM). A general look at the Airline business gives us the following profitability factors.


Table .0 KSF Comparisons Of Selected Budget & National Airlines


Airline Operating Income ($m) ASM (m) Profitability Factor


Easy Jet .8 .714


Go () .1 -15.00


Ryanair 70 .0 .


Virgin Express 1 .7 .70


Southwest 684 76.1 8.


BA 806 161. 5.00


Swissair 45 40.5 11.1


The yield and load factors coupled with unit costs gives us further insight into each airline and its operations. In this way we can see Ryanair doing well with Go performing extremely poorly. Easy Jet is profitable and viable but require attention in arena of competitive advantage.


Table .0 Traditional Financial Analysis


Airline RoS% Rev/ Passenger ($) Profit/ Passenger ($) Profit/ Employee ($k)


Easy Jet 1.6 71 . 10.1


Go -4 5.5 -11 -44.5


Ryanair 1 61.8 1 5.4


Virgin Express -1.1 100 -1.1 -4.6


Southwest 16 7 8. 16.7


BA 5.6 16 7. 5.1


Swissair 6. 57 1 5.


Word Count ca. ,000 (excluding Figures & Tables)


References


D’Aveni R. (14) “Hypercompetition � Managing the Dynamics of Strategic Manoeuvring”, New York, Free Press.


Fahey L. & Narayanan V.K. (186) “Macro environmental Analysis for Strategic Management”, St Paul MN, West Publishing.


Grant R.M (15) “Contemporary Strategy Analysis”, Blackwell, Oxford Press.


Hofer C. & Schendel D (17) “Strategy Formulation � Analytical Concepts”, St Paul MN, West Publishing. 17.


Mintzberg H. (10) “The Design School”, Strategic Management Journal.


Porter M.E. (185) “Competitive Advantage”, New York, Free Press.





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King Lear-Psychoanalytical View

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King Lear can be looked at in many ways ’ as an Aristotelian tragedy, a family


drama, a psychological drama, a Freudian interpretation as a comedy of the


grotesque and a feminist interpretation as a patriarchal play.


Tyranny and rejection between parents and children can lead to extreme cruelty,


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suffering and madness.


In the 0th century Lear has been re-evaluated ’ where it was once see as


unactable, it is now regarded as a relevant, popular and effectible play. The


movement away from a strictly Christian or nihilistic interpretation is towards a


version which celebrates the play‘s complexity and its courage in attempting to


reflect the mysteries and ambiguities of both life and humanity.


Freud‘s interpretation saw Cordelia‘s silence as representing death and Lear‘s


rejection of her silence as his unwillingness to face death.


There is great controversy over whether Lear is pessimistic or optimistic.


Feminist reading of King Lear feminist scholars have challenged precious notions


and assumptions about man‘s destiny‘ in a tragic universe. In 181, Marianne


Novy called for radical reappraisal of the plays, claiming that feminist critics had


responded to Shakespeare with the loyalty that a dutiful daughter might have


for a parent‘. Feminist critics have not responded to the Shakespeare


establishment as Cordelia does to Lear‘s demand for her filial devotion. Instead


of saying nothing they have criticised the question, challenged Lear‘s position as


patriarch, reconsidered the position of women in Renaissance society. A


misogynistic representation of women in King Lear can be seen. The female


characters in the play are either demonic or saintly. Goneril and Regan are


portrayed a despicable, demonic women while Cordelia is a virtuous, angelic


daughter. King Lear is a play about the perpetuation of patriarchal power and


sexual inequality.


Kathleen Mckuskie ’ King Lear dramatises a connection between sexual


insubordination and political anarchy. The order of the state is seen to depend


upon careful regulation of sexual and family relationships. When Lear rages


against the collapse of order, it is women‘s lust that is blamed as the cause of


chaos and corruption. Cordelia‘s enduring love is not a virtue that redeems


nature‘ but a response that restores patriarchal authority. Resistance to


emotional power of the play to compel us to sympathise with Lear, and urges us


to exchange the pleasure of identification for the pleasure of critical insight and


understanding. Her aim is to interrogate, rather than accept, the views of gender


and sexuality that inform King Lear.


Coppelia Kahan ’ psychoanalytical reading of the play. The absent mother‘


allows one to see King Lear as a tragedy of masculinity. Lear‘s progress is not


towards spiritual redemption but towards a recognition and acceptance of the


woman in himself‘. The tragic power if the play issues from its awareness of the


terrible human price paid by a society that represses female instincts and


feelings. Regan and Goneril betray and disappoint Lear by not being mothers to


him‘, their behaviour issues from their masculine instincts‘.


Lear as a religious play


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Fiddler on the Roof

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Play- Fiddler on the Roof


I went on vacation with my parents-in-law and was privileged to see Fiddler on the Roof in a playhouse. It was the best play I have ever seen. I loved the characters, and I bonded more with Tevya than any one else, because of his desire to have not only traditions kept, but also to have the best for his daughters. To keep his family close he sacrificed some of his traditions, even though his traditions were important to him. He has an understandable desire for his daughters to be more than he is.


The plot is centered around a town that has kept itself secluded from the “main stream” and has many traditions. These traditions make the town it what it is. The plot not only includes the town but Tevya’s family as the plot makes its turns and twists. The town, which has a large Jewish population, is about to be torn in half. And in the end, after the Jewish population is kicked out, the town ceases to exist. This comes through a series of discovery moments and tensions are high. One crucial discovery moment of the play was when Tevya discovered that those whom he trusted, his non-Jewish friends, had banned together against the Jewish population. With the impending expulsion of the Jews we also are connected to a family. Tevya’s family and the choices they make foreshadow not only family events but events that are happening in the town as well. When one of Tevya’s daughters marries a non-Jewish man, Tevya refuses to accept him. But as things move along, he is prompted to react by his loving wife, who tries to help him see that good can come out of seemingly bad choices. Tevya, who wants the best for his family, is forced to watch as his daughters make their own choices. He wants them to follow the traditions of their religion, but is forced to accept or lose his daughters. And sometimes he must accept that his traditions will be left behind for what his daughters want. In watching his daughters make their choices, it is opening Tevya’s eyes to the change happening around him, not only inside his family, but also in his little town.


The thought of the play takes us through Tevyas mind and actions, and, specifically, him finding out what is happening not only in his life, but also his daughters’ lives. As the audience watches these things it shows that change is happening in everything, and that traditions will help hold his family together, if he accepts some change to them. Tevya is forced to think and react to the situations presented him. He must also help the town keep calm too.


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The diction of the play is trying to set us in Russia, with their upheaval of control and the maltreatment of the Jews at that time. The play is centered around the Jewish population. Those not of the Jewish faith speak in a Russian accent so as to keep them separate. This also helps to try and put the audience in the play. The traditions are explained simply and the thoughts are shown to us in rich details. We see the play moving smoothly along its windy course through the way the characters talk. Through their dialogue we see the hope and dreams they hold onto. The old style of speaking and wording brings the audience to a different place and time. The music is a very important part of the diction of this play. I love the song “If I were a rich man,” in which it talks about having more money for show, so that you could not only have a little self-gratification, but also have a way to provide more for your family. The way the music linked us to the characters helped show us their thoughts, and why they would react to certain things the way they did.


I liked the play. It was neat to see these things in action. I was captured by not only the way the play was performed, but also the way it presented its ideas. As a father I can see wanting more for your own family, and of the big heart that Tevya has.





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blah

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The purpose of the “Time Sample Observation” was to make objective observations of a chosen behavior, and to conclude the validity of my assumptions about that particular behavior by analyzing the collected data. I chose to concentrate on a behavior, which I felt was particularly dominant in Gregory. From early on, he seemed to interact with the other children much less frequently compared to his peers. He appeared to communicate with his classmates and teachers sporadically during the times that I observed him, as opposed to his peers who were constantly engaging in group activities such as house or doctor, or were seeking attention


from various teachers.


Although the observations I made supported my initial assumption about Gregory¹s behavior, the resulting conclusions proved to be statistically insignificant. Of the sixteen occurrences, ten of Gregory’s behaviors fell in the “yes” category, indicating more than fifty percent of data in support of my assumption. While reviewing these data may initially suggest a statistical significance, such significance could not be warranted since the occurrences were not within the required seventy-five percent or greater range. Additionally, I noticed several other details during my observation. During the end of the day when the children sat in a circle and sang, Gregory did not participate. He stood in the circle and did not mouth out the words, or the coordinating hand movements to the songs. The only exception was one song that involved sign language, during which he participated quite enthusiastically.


The purpose of the “Time Sample Observation” was to make objective observations of a chosen behavior, and to conclude the validity of my assumptions about that particular behavior by analyzing the collected data. I chose to concentrate on a behavior, which I felt was particularly dominant in Gregory. From early on, he seemed to interact with the other children much less frequently compared to his peers. He appeared to communicate with his classmates and teachers sporadically during the times that I observed him, as opposed to his peers who were constantly engaging in group activities such as house or doctor, or were seeking attention


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from various teachers.


Although the observations I made supported my initial assumption about Gregory¹s behavior, the resulting conclusions proved to be statistically insignificant. Of the sixteen occurrences, ten of Gregory’s behaviors fell in the “yes” category, indicating more than fifty percent of data in support of my assumption. While reviewing these data may initially suggest a statistical significance, such significance could not be warranted since the occurrences were not within the required seventy-five percent or greater range. Additionally, I noticed several other details during my observation. During the end of the day when the children sat in a circle and sang, Gregory did not participate. He stood in the circle and did not mouth out the words, or the coordinating hand movements to the songs. The only exception was one song that involved sign language, during which he participated quite enthusiastically.





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